This paper explores whether proper management of feeding goats with forages could increase the production and reproduction of Kosta goats. Research was carried out in two phases. The first observed the growth of female Kosta goats after weaning at four months to puberty at seven months and mating at nine months. Variables assessed include ration consumption, daily weight gain and puberty age on the livestock. The second phase observed female goats from mating to birth, assessing ration consumption, daily body weight gain, length of pregnancy, litter size, kid birth weight and kid weaning weight. The research used a completely randomised design, using forages with three energy levels—53, 61 and 69 per cent—with relatively equal protein content at 12 per cent. The forages included field grass and leaves of waru, lamtoro, gamal and jackfruit. The research found that the higher the dietary energy (up to 61 per cent TDN) in the ration, the higher the production performances of Kosta female goats in terms of efficiency of ration usage, body weight gain, birth weight and weaning weight, and the higher the reproduction performances in terms of age of puberty, length of pregnancy and litter size.
This paper examines factors that influence Indonesian cocoa exports and uses an econometric model to assess potential policy impacts. Results identified export price, cocoa production growth, exchange rate and time trend as significant influences on cocoa exports (R2 = 0.9473). The author concluded that a fertiliser price subsidy could be expected to increase Indonesia cocoa exports and production for cocoa smallholders. Simulating a 15 per cent fertiliser price subsidy resulted in increased cocoa production (0.38-8.3 per cent) in three out of the four regions included in the study and increased national production (1.93 per cent) and exports (1 per cent). Simulating an export tax of 5 per cent identified possible price transmission impacts on the domestic cocoa price that resulted in a reduction in Indonesian cocoa production and a decline in cocoa exports. The author recommends a devaluation policy as an alternative to an export tax policy to avoid any negative impacts on cocoa production, cocoa exports and smallholder welfare. These findings support previous assessments of similar policies on corn, cocoa and palm oil.
This study examined soybean insecticide demand in Java and assessed the impact of integrated pest management (IPM) on insecticide use using aggregate regional data. The report includes an overview of the IPM program and technology transfer including a detailed outline of Farmer Field Schools. Data was collected from various sources and analysed using recursive and simultaneous equation models, the construction of which is detailed in the report. Results from each model are reported and compared, consistently attributing significant reductions in soybean insecticide use in Jogjakarta and Central Java to IPM technology. Results are discussed in terms of how well the variables explain variation in insecticide use and outline the relationship between insecticide use and other variables such as relative pesticide price, pest infestation and IPM technology. The greater accuracy of the simultaneous model was highlighted due to its ability to capture the reversible relationship between pest infestation and insecticide use. In concluding, the authors attribute the reduction in soybean insecticide use to the elimination of the insecticide subsidy which resulted in increased insecticide prices and dissemination of IPM technology.
This paper assesses the impact of integrated pest management (IPM) training on the economics of pest management decision making and discusses the mechanisms of reduced insecticides associated with IPM training. Background information outlines IPM and pesticide use and the concept of an economic threshold for pest control. Data on soybeans during 1990-1998 was collected from provincial agricultural agencies and analysed using an econometric analysis. Results include a discussion of the extent to which the model explains the variability in pest attack and pesticide use and details relationships with other variables. The paper highlights that pesticide use decreased as IPM training increased and discusses this in terms of changes in farmer expectations for yield loss and increasing acceptable levels of pest attack up to a point i.e. the economic threshold. The authors outline policy implications and some considerations for continued dissemination of IPM training given its success in influencing farmer's strategic thinking and develop economical plant protection.
This study reports the impacts of trade liberalization on the economic performance of soybeans in Indonesia. Data for the econometric model reported in this paper was obtained from various sources. The econometric model, its representativeness and ability to describe the Indonesian soybean economy and its validation are briefly reported. The paper outlines the world soybean economy, identifying primary producers and exporters, importers and briefly outlining the Indonesian soybean economy. Detailed results of the following simulations are reported 1) full trade liberalization, with no trade restrictions by exporters or importers; 2) import country shock (Chinese imports increased by 30%; 3) export country shock (US production decreased by 25%); both importer and exporter shock. The results of these simulations are discussed in terms of the impact on world soybean price, world imports and exports and Indonesian domestic price and imports. The authors conclude with key recommendations for the Indonesian soybean economy: actively encouraging removal of subsidies to ensure efficient and fair trade as intended by trade liberalization; and increasing Indonesian domestic production through policy that facilitates adoption of improved production practices and technology and expansion of soybean production.
In this article, the authors explore how the coffee processing method can influence coffee cup taste by evaluating three commercial coffee processing methods—full-washed, wet-hulled and pulped-natural—in use in the Indonesian specialty coffee origin of “Bajawa” on the island of Flores. Specifically, the research attempts to determine whether pulped-natural processing creates inherently lower quality coffee, while at the same time considering the environmental, resource and financial constraints of the Flores farm system. Sixty-seven coffee tasters in Australia, Indonesia and the USA tested composite samples by using blind cupping, comparative preference testing methodology. The results show a clear preference for pulped-natural processing (often considered an inferior method in Indonesia), indicating that processing method does influence coffee cup taste. The demonstrated quality results, coupled with low water use, low waste output and minimal processing equipment requirement indicates that pulped-natural processing in the Flores coffee industry warrants further investigation. This research also highlights the importance of considering traditional practices and local conditions along with market requirements when making recommendations for coffee value adding and quality improvement.
In recent years, domestic maize demand for food and feed industries in Indonesia has grown faster than production. This paper reviews the past and current status and the future prospect of maize in Indonesia based on time series data from the last 41 years. The research shows that over the last four decades, consumption of maize has changed structurally from direct food to feed and food industries. Demand from both industries began to increase, and after 1975, maize production could not meet the growing demand for maize, which led Indonesia to import maize from other countries. Current production is said to be 'levelling-off', while demand continues to grow. The authors therefore propose that without future intervention, Indonesia is likely to have an increasing maize deficit. The authors suggest several policy interventions to reduce Indonesia's dependency on maize imports, namely intensive promotion of high yield seed varieties, development of a fair partnership between seed growers, seed companies, maize farmers, feed millers and food factories, helping farmers with subsidized and simple credit, and strengthening farmers groups to improve their bargaining position.
Goats are the most important small ruminants produced and consumed in Indonesia, in particular in some parts of Eastern Indonesia. They play an important economic and socio-cultural role in the lives of many small holders. This article presents a broad picture of the goat sector in Indonesia. Using recent literature as the main source of information, the article presents a review of the main breeds of goats found in Indonesia; their population levels in Indonesia and changes over time; their socio-economic role in smallholder households; their most common management and production systems and the challenges and obstacles for better production of goats. The article concludes with a number of potential strategies to encourage, facilitate and improve the production of goats by smallholders in Indonesia.