Beef production is a major industry in East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) and, given the high rate of poverty, future development of the industry has the potential to significantly contribute to poverty reduction. This report outlines the potential of the NTT beef industry, the main value chain issues and options for possible interventions to improve smallholder returns. The author details numerous opportunities for improved productivity and development of the beef industry given the strong demand for NTT beef, established trading systems and the potential for expansion of grazing land area. Opportunities include increasing farmer knowledge and access to inputs for improved forage production and/or the development of integrated cropping systems, development of a strategic breeding program, access to weighing stations, improved access to finance, training and extension services, and management of sustainable slaughter rates. The author makes recommendations for additional research to further assess some of the value chain issues, social structure impacts on production and trading, market opportunities and the feasibility of investment and intervention options.