This study identifies sustainability and competitiveness issues in the value chains of the following key Indonesian export commodities; cocoa, coffee, mango, cashew, tea and rubber. Methodology included desk top analysis and interviews with development and research stakeholders. Each commodity is described in a separate section and includes discussion of the issues relating to sustainability and competitiveness and opportunities to address these. The report highlights specific issues unique to each commodity and generic issues such as low smallholder productivity and access to improved farming practices and technology through to inefficient value chains and challenges in complying with national sustainability policy and international corporate environmental governance. The authors summarise the current policy and operating environment and provide policy recommendations to improve sustainability and competitiveness of these value chains into the future. These include: integrated horticulture development in upland areas for mango; farm production and added value creation for cashew; combining clonal based development and forest protection in rubber; revitalisation of the tea production and marketing system; expanding cocoa somatic embryogenesis technology seedling and sustainability based certification; and improving the mechanism of coffee certification schemes.