This study provides a comprehensive overview of the production practices, consumption habits, consumer preferences and distribution of chilli in Indonesia. Data was collected via secondary sources as well as interviews with key food chain stakeholders, including 306 chilli and non-chilli farmers from West Java, Central Java and East Java, as well as 16 market agents, 6 chili processors, and 289 chilli and non-chilli farmer housewives and 62 urban housewives. Key constraints identified by farmers were insect and pest losses (up to 63 per cent), difficulties in marketing and low yield potential. Analytical assessment of the different food chain levels highlighted several opportunities for improving chilli production and benefits for small farmers. Chilli production and income could be improved through the development of improved varieties for pest resistance, yield potential and incorporation of consumers' preferred traits (freshness, more seeds, attractive colour, pungency). Judicious use of inputs (fertilisers and pesticides) would contribute significantly to reduced production costs. Furthermore, price and negotiating power could be improved through collaborative marketing, farm level chilli processing and development of direct market links and information networks.

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