Goats are the most important small ruminants produced and consumed in Indonesia, in particular in some parts of Eastern Indonesia. They play an important economic and socio-cultural role in the lives of many small holders. This article presents a broad picture of the goat sector in Indonesia. Using recent literature as the main source of information, the article presents a review of the main breeds of goats found in Indonesia; their population levels in Indonesia and changes over time; their socio-economic role in smallholder households; their most common management and production systems and the challenges and obstacles for better production of goats. The article concludes with a number of potential strategies to encourage, facilitate and improve the production of goats by smallholders in Indonesia.