This report compares and contrasts the potential for use of a public private partnership approach to solve the problems of low productivity and inadequate smallholder income in the beef cattle and cocoa industries in eastern Indonesia. Overall, the study found that the potential for improvement of productivity in the beef industry—in order to reduce import dependence and meet market demand—appears much lower than the potential for success in improving profitability and sustainability in the cocoa industry by improving yields and quality. Cocoa provides a good model for reform and productivity improvement in high value cropping by smallholders in partnership with Government and the private sector in Indonesia. However, the solutions to the multiple problems of production, product quality, trade and export, research and extension require an approach involving the whole supply chain. The report outlines a management structure for public private partnership involving an industry wide Commission and Secretariat composed of all stakeholders.