This study details the changes in Indonesian food consumption patterns and growth in modern food retailing, including retail chains, packaged foods and imports. The study was informed by a desktop analysis of previous literature, previously collected market information and trade data and interviews conducted by the authors. It provides a brief background on Indonesia and its agricultural trade sector then details changing dietary patterns in Indonesia, both traditional and modern food retailing systems and the developmental opportunities and constraints for modern food retailing. Between 1999 and 2009 modern food retailer sales increased from US$1.5 billion to over US$5.6 billion and their share of total retail food sales rose from 5 to 11 percent. This trend is expected to continue and the report outlines factors that may drive consumers towards the efficiencies (refrigeration, air conditioning, quality assurance) of modern food retailers. The report highlights the Government regulations constraining modern retail food supply chains in procuring products both internationally and domestically and in obtaining sites for expansion. The importance of changes in Indonesia's retail food sector to future import growth is discussed, with particular reference to the United States.