To secure quality and quantity of agricultural products in the face of rising global demand, private companies are increasingly developing and nurturing long-term relationships with producers and their organizations. This case study describes how cocoa traders and manufacturers on the island of Flores are investing in producer organizations to ensure quality, sustainability and future supply, and ultimately their own survival. It provides a useful overview of the cocoa supply chain on Flores and then details how the efforts of P.T. Mars to secure their supply of cocoa has resulted in sustainable changes in the Flores cocoa chains. This includes improved organizational and marketing skills of farmers, increased resilience among farmer's organizations to cope and adapt to new situations, strengthened skills among farmers, and increased potential for collaboration and coordination among actors. Given the announcement by Mars Inc. that by 2020 all their cocoa beans would be from sources certified as sustainable, this approach presents a new and growing market opportunity for farmers.
This report provides a brief overview of pig production in Indonesia, in particular its significance in terms of pig exports and the predominance of smallholders. Government focus has been on both larger scale commercial production as well as significant support for smallholders through research and development, extension services, cooperative development and private sector provision of goods and services. The report provides details on investment priorities for the Indonesian pig industry. These include genetics (breeding programs and production potential), nutrition (feed ingredients), animal health (key diseases), housing and environment (pig housing and effluent considerations), product development and quality (impact of consumer demand and trends), reproduction (litter size), socio economics and technology transfer (smallholder production and extension approaches). The authors conclude that development of the Indonesian pig industry requires a research focus on environmental factors (encompassing climatic, structural, health, nutrition, cultural and social aspects) and socio economics and technology transfer to provide necessary support to improve smallholder production systems.
This article identifies and analyses constraints in seed production in Indonesia and describes the major factors that account for the failure to produce quality seed potatoes. The study is based on interviews with staff from government and non-government agencies, farmer-seed producers, farmer cooperative members and end-user farmers. Facilities and techniques used in various stages of seed production and quality control were also evaluated. One of the major problems highlighted by the author is that seed growers claim to sell certified seeds, but they are not actually certified by the government. This has led to a lack of trust by farmers in seed growers and their reluctance to use seeds other than their own, which has in turn created a marketing problem for seed producers. Other constraints highlighted include lack of funding for institutions conducting research and development in potato seed production, limited cold storage facilities, re-introduction of field-grown or net house-grown materials as in vitro without proper procedures, low priority given to potato tissue culture activities, and existing laws that are not conducive to seed production. Overall, the study provides a thorough background to the key constraints in Indonesia's potato seed system.
Traditional Indonesian shallot production is based on seed bulbs but True Seed Shallots (TSS) could improve competitiveness of the industry. This study assesses numerous factors such as, seed raising mixtures, sowing depth and furrow fill, productivity comparison of TSS cultivars and seed bulb cultivars, plant density and nitrogen fertilisation, for their impact on shallot growth and production. Each experiment is reported on and discussed separately. The report discusses the impact of these different factors on a range of shallot characteristics such as emergence, growing period, yield, bulb size, bulb colour and storage quality. The results lead the authors to identify areas for additional research such as the impact of nitrogen fertiliser on storage quality of bulbs and the mechanism through which stable manure improves seedling emergence. The authors conclude that TSS could be a viable option for improving the competitiveness of Indonesia's shallot production. TSS yield's averaged 70 and 113% higher than the seed bulb cultivar 'Bima curut' but exhibited a 2-3 week longer growing period. The report discusses optimal nitrogen fertiliser rates and plant densities for the TSS and seed bulb cultivars.
This paper explores the allocation of inputs in small-scale shallot production with a view to increasing efficiency and raising farmers' profits. The research uses primary data gathered through a survey of 43 farmers in one village in East Java. It applies double-log production function and polynomial cost function to measure the profit gap. Three simulations are used for input allocation based on low, medium and high input costs. The findings show that land, labour and seed are the most important group of inputs for production, followed by the fertilizer phosphate. Seeds were found to be used efficiently in all three simulations. However, allocation of labour, pesticides and potassium all exceeded optimum use. In contrast, inputs such as land, phosphate and nitrogen were under-utilized. The profit gaps for low, medium and high input costs were calculated at 4.72 per cent, 13.96 per cent and 17.92 per cent, respectively. The research concluded that the gap between actual and optimum profit for shallot farmers was significant, but could be improved with efficient input allocation.