Bali cattle is one of the four existing indigenous cattle breeds in Indonesia. This article reviews cattle characteristics and husbandry methods in the country with a special focus on the importance of Bali cattle. The study shows that indigenous cattle are an important and integral component of the small landholder cattle production system, which is essentially 'organic' in nature and the most sustainable system. Farmers prefer indigenous cattle because they are less demanding and less prone to problems usually associated with most of the 'improved' and/or crossbred cattle. Ecological or organic farming is seen as an alternative to chemical intensive agriculture. The authors thus highlight the importance of developing indigenous technologies for ecological and economical farming methods. They suggest that policies reoriented towards maintaining the indigenous Bali breed and improving their efficiency, not through external genetic intervention, but through within breed genetic improvement are required, as well as effectively harnessing locally available resources. The study concludes that Bali cattle ought to be considered the most suitable indigenous cattle breed for low-input, high stress production systems still practised by millions of families in Indonesia.
Despite numerous initiatives to address Indonesia's inconsistent and poor cocoa quality, adoption of improved production and post-harvest practices has been limited. This study examines the influence of value chain governance and quality based incentives. The report includes a brief overview of the Indonesian cocoa value chain from producers to international trading and the enabling market. Analysis of the risks and incentives for improved cocoa quality concluded that incentives are either non-existent or not sufficient, but provided some considerations for future development practitioners. Incentives for processors to improve quality and consistency are not yet sufficient for transformation of their procurement operations and a strong cost benefit would need to be realised before they made any commitment to invest. Given strong competition, numerous market channels and the lack of quality price differential there is little incentive for farmers to improve production and post-harvest practices. Even given sufficient incentive, farmers must have the capacity to access and adopt improved practices. The report emphasizes that understanding the risks and incentives at all levels of the value chain is critical in deciding program interventions.
This study details the changes in Indonesian food consumption patterns and growth in modern food retailing, including retail chains, packaged foods and imports. The study was informed by a desktop analysis of previous literature, previously collected market information and trade data and interviews conducted by the authors. It provides a brief background on Indonesia and its agricultural trade sector then details changing dietary patterns in Indonesia, both traditional and modern food retailing systems and the developmental opportunities and constraints for modern food retailing. Between 1999 and 2009 modern food retailer sales increased from US$1.5 billion to over US$5.6 billion and their share of total retail food sales rose from 5 to 11 percent. This trend is expected to continue and the report outlines factors that may drive consumers towards the efficiencies (refrigeration, air conditioning, quality assurance) of modern food retailers. The report highlights the Government regulations constraining modern retail food supply chains in procuring products both internationally and domestically and in obtaining sites for expansion. The importance of changes in Indonesia's retail food sector to future import growth is discussed, with particular reference to the United States.
Similar to Jaeger's 2007 report, this paper commences with a very good overview of the global cashew situation and moves from there into detail on the Indonesian cashew industry. Information presented is logical in its flow and well-constructed graphs and tables support the information presented. These two sections set the scene well for the analysis presented around Indonesia as a competitor in the global cashew trade. The analysis does a good job in assessing whether there is a market for Indonesian cashew. The authors review factors such as quality and price, seasonality and timing of the crop, costs and margins, production, geography and value adding from shelling to arrive at conclusions around the prospects for cashew in Indonesia. The prospects presented are sound, as are the challenges the sector faces if it is going to achieve such yield and planting increases that are suggested as possible. The report concludes with three recommendations of merit, being one producer, one shelling and one support initiative. Overall the report is easy to read and provides a very solid understanding of the sector.
Development of mango hybrids is one strategy to improve mango quality to a level suitable for export markets, however, the duration of the juvenile phase is currently an obstacle. This paper outlines the use of the plant growth regulator, Paclobutrazol, to induce flowering and also assesses the impact on yield. The research involved a randomised block design with two levels of Paclobutrazol treatment and 20 accessions of mango hybrid. Results are presented and discussed based on the impact on induction of flowering and yield. Induction of flowering results are discussed in terms of various characteristics such as number of flowering plans and duration of appearance of flowers, number of flowers per plant, number of peduncles, width and length of inflorescence. Yield was presented in terms of number of fruit per plant, number of fruit harvested, weight of harvested fruit and yield. The authors conclude that Paclobutrazol significantly induced flowering and improved yield, however, yield appeared to be more affected by genetics.
This paper examines the use of geographical identities as a specific tool for value-adding in agricultural produce, presenting the case of specialty coffee production in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The study is based on ethnographic research in 21 villages of four major coffee producing districts in 2002 to 2003, with follow up visits in 2005 and 2006. The paper reveals that the potential for producer-driven geographical indications compete with corporate-driven quality constructions, where the later are able to appropriate place-related quality associations by using trademarks, vertical integration and tightly coordinated supply chain controls. An emergent politic of quality governance and ownership in global commodity chains reveals the highly restricted institutional terrain within which growers of specialty coffee might attempt to retain a higher share of the economic rent associated with quality production.
Given a high unit price, substantial demand for specialty coffee and Indonesia's low international market share, there is scope for expansion of Indonesian Arabica coffee exports. This report summarises the key factors that impact on the competitiveness of the Arabica coffee industry in Indonesia and prioritises areas for intervention. Field visits and interviews with value chain participants informed the analysis. The report examines three scenarios for expanding production and farm income i) increasing on-farm production and yield rate, ii) increasing area of mature trees, iii) a combination of i) and ii). Three coffee farms from Northern Sumatra are profiled in an integrated value chain analysis covering farmers to exporters. On-farm production limitations are identified as well as market and value chain constraints. The author highlights the lack of extension services for on farm technical support and the need for an overarching industry organisation representing stakeholders along the farm to export supply chain to address policy and market based issues.
This report identifies legumes for use in maize and upland rice-based systems of East Nusa Tenggara and contains additional information on biomass and seed production, agronomy (sowing, configuration, pests, weeds, disease) and benefits from legume use. The report details the characteristics and performance of seven herbaceous legumes (Clitoria ternatea, Centrosema pascuorum, Lablab purpureus, Stylosanthes seabrana, Stylosanthes guianensis, Macroptilium bracteatum, Centrosema molle) including suitability to local climatic conditions and as a cattle feed, evaluated in on-farm and research station trials. The report contains numerous farmer case studies, documenting the use of herbaceous legumes in cereal and cattle systems. Benefits include production of significant biomass; provision of alternative high-N forage to supplement other feed sources e.g. tree legumes; direct incorporation into cropping systems based on maize and rice either as a relay or rotation; contribution of N to the cropping system through nitrogen fixation if not removed for hay; and utilisation of residual stored soil moisture. The report highlights aspects of the system that impact on farmer adoption and notes that continued farmer support is critical for successful adoption.
This report assesses the effectiveness of the PRIMA project in improving cocoa quality and the innovative approach used in establishing a quality driven supply chain with direct benefits to South Sulawesi smallholders. Interviews and questionnaires with a range of industry participants informed the report. The core component of the report details PRIMA project activities and how effective they were. Key areas where the PRIMA project was successful were: farmer organisation and the development of a quality driven supply chain model with direct market links between farmers, processor and global manufacturer; participatory research and an intensive extension approach; and advocacy of modified harvesting, pruning, sanitation and fertilization as fundamental to good farming practices with a 24 per cent increase in yield. Limitations of project activities are highlighted, particularly in relation to the research component. The authors note three key findings from the PRIMA project that would be beneficial to future development programs, namely technology transfer to address social and technical barriers to adoption, provision of a dedicated cocoa research presence and farmer group empowerment for technology transfer and improved marketing opportunities.
In this paper, the authors explore the level of market integration among regional vegetable markets in Indonesia and the movement of prices at the producer and wholesale market levels. Studying price integration among regions is important in order to increase the marketing efficiency of vegetables in the country. The main vegetables included in the study are shallots, large red chilli, potatoes, cabbage and tomatoes. The research uses secondary time-series data from 2001 to 2008 and analyses variables and integration using co-integration analyses. While results from the analyses vary as to whether producer prices do integrate with the reference market, they both indicate that the large red chilli commodity should receive more attention as market efficiency has not yet been reached. The authors suggest that government intervention, especially in the form of pricing policies, is needed both at the producer and consumer level to stabilize vegetable prices in Indonesia. However, the success of this intervention depends heavily on government's understanding of price transmission in the vegetable market. This research makes a solid contribution to this end.