Trade-offs between income, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning during tropical rainforest conversion and agroforestry intensification

This paper examines opposing land use strategies in cacao agroforestry in Sulawesi by using data on species richness of nine plant and animal taxa, six related ecosystem functions, and socioeconomic drivers of agroforestry expansion. Data was collected around Toro village in the Kulawi valley in four forest and 12 agroforestry plots. Findings reveal that transformation from near-primary forest to agroforestry had little effect on overall species richness, but reduced plant biomass and carbon storage by around 75 per cent and species richness of forest-using species by around 60 per cent.

Yield development and nutrient dynamics in cocoa-gliricidia agroforests of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

This paper studied the relationship between tree age, nutrient dynamics and cocoa yield to determine which resources may limit cocoa yield. The study involved surveys of 14 cocoa agroforests in Central Sulawesi, including soil characterisation and analysis, and pod sampling for yield estimates, bean weight and carbon/nutrient analysis. Soil carbon nutrient levels did not change over the timeframes of 8 and 15 years and there was no relationship between soil carbon/nutrient levels and bean weight or carbon/nutrient levels.

The economics of pest and production management in small-holder cocoa: lessons from Sulawesi

This article examines pest control and production management methods used by farmers in Sulawesi to improve cocoa bean quality and increase income from cocoa. Strategies investigated include those directed at increasing the number and size of cocoa pods, those aimed at reducing hosts for pest transmission, two input-intensive approaches, and the alternative of doing nothing beyond harvesting mature cocoa pods.

Value chain assessment: Indonesia cocoa

This report identifies the constraints and growth opportunities for the Indonesian cocoa value chain and proposes potential solutions to these constraints for future investment in cocoa. A desktop analysis provided information on both the global and Indonesia cocoa value chain. Interviews with key value chain participants informed the rest of the analysis, while focus groups were held to validate initial findings. The authors propose three key areas to address growth constraints: increasing productivity, improving quality and increased investments for local value addition.

Final report: sustainable cocoa enterprise solutions for smallholders (success) alliance-Indonesia

This program focused on improving the quantity and quality of smallholder cocoa production in Sulawesi, West Papua, North Sumatra and Bali as well as strengthening global cocoa value chain partnerships. Monitoring and evaluation data was collected through the program as well as through independent research and evaluations. The program had six categories of activity: Farmer Field Schools (FFS), Farmer Organisation, Communications Initiative, Farming as a Business, Side-grafting and Bio-control.

The “sweet desire”: cacao cultivation and its knowledge transfer in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

This report covers cacao production, how cacao farmers acquire, utilise and transfer technical knowledge as well as providing an understanding of the global cacao value chain. Information was obtained through interviews with farmers (n=50) and additional value chain actors. The primary knowledge transfer pathways identified are through family, friends and neighbours.

Enhancing the adoption of improved cassava production and utilization systems in Indonesia

This paper reports on the 'ACIAR cassava project in Indonesia', where a farmer participatory approach was used in an effort to increase the productivity of cassava-based cropping systems via adoption of higher yielding varieties and improved cultural practices. The report commences with a brief history of cassava research and development efforts in Indonesia, before providing quite an extensive methodology section outlining the farmer participatory research trials that were conducted.

Harmonizing the supply of cassava to meet the increasing demand for food and various other uses in Indonesia

The demand for cassava has increased significantly in the past 40 years. Area harvested has however declined, but yields have more than doubled in this time. This paper commences with a summary of cassava production in Indonesia since its introduction in the 18th century, the initial development of exports and development of cassava in dried forms as a means of addressing food scarcity.

The use of cassava starch factory waste (pulp) as feed for dairy cattle by smallholder farmers in East Java, Indonesia.

This paper details a field survey conducted in three dairy cattle production centres (Malang, Kediri, and Blitar) of East Java on the use of cassava pulp as feed. The authors found a very high usage of cassava pulp as additional feed for dairy cows, particularly in the dry season when a large supply of the pulp was available. The report identifies a number of advantages identified by farmers of feeding cassava pulp to dairy cattle, including improving palatability of concentrate feed and increasing milk yield.

Cassava agronomy research and adoption of improved practices in Indonesia - major achievements during the last 20 years

This paper reviews cassava research in Indonesia prior to 2000 and presents the key achievements in farmer adoption of new technologies to increase cassava yields and income. The improved practices the authors examine include land preparation, erosion control, planting material, plant growth management through plant population and spacing, planting time, weed control, cropping systems and fertilization. The research highlights that cassava planting time is affected by cropping system, soil type and water availability.


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