In this paper, the author presents a useful overview and analysis of aquaculture practices and farming systems in Indonesia, with a particular focus on aquaculture feed and feeding. Notable is the fact that Indonesia uses a relatively small proportion of the area that is available and/or suitable for aquaculture (4.5 million hectares of more than 11.8 million hectares available), which together with the intensification of culture practices provides an opportunity for rapid growth of the sector.
Opportunities to use cocoa pods and forages to address feed gaps during the dry season in Southeast Sulawesi. ACIAR-SMAR 2007/013. 48:76
Increased beef demand and prices could increase smallholder cash flow and production if feed quantity and quality limitations could be addressed. This project assessed the potential use of cocoa by-products as a cattle feed and various forage and tree legumes in managed grazing systems in South East Sulawesi (Sultra). Methodology involved laboratory, research facility and on farm trials. Results indicate cocoa pods could successfully be fed to Bali cattle (10-15g DM/kg live weight/d) while contributing to cocoa pod borer management and using simple low-cost processing for storage.
Case study 2: Developing an integrated production system for Bali cattle in the eastern islands of Indonesia.
The low weight of Bali cattle for sale was a major issue related to smallholder farmer poverty and an impediment to the development of a cattle industry in eastern Indonesia. An ACIAR-funded research team established that the low weight was due to poor management, particularly nutrition, which led to low reproductive efficiency, and poor survival and growth of the calf.
Integrating herbaceous legumes into crop and livestock systems in eastern Indonesia.
This report identifies legumes for use in maize and upland rice-based systems of East Nusa Tenggara and contains additional information on biomass and seed production, agronomy (sowing, configuration, pests, weeds, disease) and benefits from legume use.
A whole-farm system approach to enhancing Bali cattle production in the mixed crop/livestock systems of Eastern Indonesia.
While many forages suitable for improving livestock production in mixed crop-livestock systems in the tropics have been identified, their adoption has been limited. Before farmers will introduce new forages into their farming system an important prerequisite is that the change will be considered profitable, will have an acceptable level of risk and will not interfere with food security. This paper describes a whole farm systems approach used to identify the benefits of new forages to improve Bali cattle production in the smallholder mixed crop-livestock systems of eastern Indonesia.
Improving smallholder crop-livestock systems in eastern Indonesia. ACIAR-LPS/2004/005.
This report presents findings from a project aiming to help smallholder farmers improve cattle production in eastern Indonesia by introducing forages into their cropping systems. It identified several factors constraining livestock production in smallholder farming systems, and found that most technologies needed to address the constraints are already available in Indonesia or elsewhere, but have not yet been adopted by local farmers.
A participatory, farming systems approach to improving Bali cattle production in the smallholder crop-livestock systems of Eastern Indonesia
This paper presents key findings from a research, development and extension program conducted between 2001 and 2009 in six villages in South Sulawesi and Central Lombok to develop and test a participatory, farming systems approach for evaluating and increasing the adoption of strategies for improving Bali cattle production in the smallholder farming systems of Eastern Indonesia.
Case study 1: Crop-livestock farming systems in eastern Indonesia
This case study presents the research and outcomes of three ACIAR-funded projects to improve Bali cattle production for smallholders in eastern Indonesia. The projects—conducted between 2001 and 2008—developed and tested an approach that combined the principles of participatory, on-farm engagement with farmers, and farming systems analysis and modelling. Their main purpose was to encourage the uptake of technologies that improve the productivity and welfare of smallholder households.
The effect of forage energy level on production and reproduction performances of Kosta female goat
This paper explores whether proper management of feeding goats with forages could increase the production and reproduction of Kosta goats. Research was carried out in two phases. The first observed the growth of female Kosta goats after weaning at four months to puberty at seven months and mating at nine months. Variables assessed include ration consumption, daily weight gain and puberty age on the livestock.