This paper examines collective action as an option for addressing obstacles for smallholders linking to markets, specifically for marketing of underutilised tropical fruits. These are of importance for nutrition, cultural value and contribution to income and improved market chains will increase income and incentives for production to maintain diversity. The report includes a description of the conceptual framework for collective action. The report comprises three cases studies as examples of good marketing practices for biodiversity. These include: kokum in India; cowa in Thailand; and pomelo in Indonesia. The results briefly describe each case study including the crop and its production, the driver for the collective action, the structure and conduct, performance and biodiversity. The discussion focuses on the characteristics of collective action in practice, and in particular how they relate to each case study including collective action as a social process, transaction costs, improved market chains, networks for information change, social learnings and incentive, decision and investment issues. The authors also outline the factors that may limit the success of collective action and highlight that alternative strategies such as vertical integration may need to be considered.

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