This report reviews previous agroforestry, forage and livestock projects in eastern Indonesia to assess the potential for integrated timber-forage-livestock agroforestry systems to improve the incomes of smallholder farmers in West Timor. It identifies strategies for developing more acceptable systems, proposes methods for their implementation and provides an assessment and analysis of the constraints to adoption of research results. The scoping study included field investigation and a social survey in West Timor in 2007. Findings reveal that the major barriers constraining the adoption of agroforestry programs are physical, social, institutional and economic in nature, including water availability, limited understanding of farmer's decision making processes, labour shortages, low household capital, and regulatory frameworks and policies inhibiting beneficial programs. Furthermore, farmers were found to be reluctant to make long-term investments. The study proposes a timber, forage, livestock agroforestry approach as a strategy for enhancing the uptake of new technology—a flexible approach that allows for the cyclical nature of adoption. Success will depend on the extent to which biophysical and socio-cultural aspects are integrated into the approach.