In this paper, the authors describe the successful implementation of an integrated village management system to improve reproductive efficiency in beef cattle production. They also review the results of a range of studies conducted to develop feeding strategies to increase growth of early weaned Bali cattle across eastern Indonesia, as well as the potential use of crop residues, including rice straw, as a basal diet for reproducing females. To support the Indonesian government's proposed increase in cattle numbers, the authors conclude that a greater quantity of feed resources is needed. This requires a change in feeding management where early weaned calves are preferentially fed less abundant high quality materials at a fixed proportion of live weight, while lower quality materials and crop residues are directed to non-lactating cows for maintenance of body condition. The authors propose that the use of crop residues as a basal feed resource for non-lactating cows combined with early weaning, new forages and strategic supplementation of early weaned calves have the potential to increase cattle numbers and the efficiency of cattle production systems across Indonesia.

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