This study examined the effects of fertiliser, mulch, cultivation and time of sowing on the growth and yield of peanut, mungbean and soybean following rainfed lowland rice. The study involved research stations or farm field experiments in East Java and Sulawesi. Trial design was a randomised incomplete block with four replicates and treatments applied as an incomplete factorial combination. The results indicated that mulch did not improve yield except in drier areas due to water conservation effects, and fertiliser application improved legume yield (the magnitude of which varied between site, crop and season) where water availability was not limiting indicating that residual fertiliser following rice is inadequate. It further demonstrated that tillage could partially alleviate the adverse soil physical condition induced during the rice phase and increased peanut yield possibly due to soil structure benefits on pod development. The authors concluded that correct timing of crop establishment was the most important factor for post-rice grain legume production then soil water availability. Sowing immediately after rice harvest in the rainy season will ensure high establishment rates and yield.