Cashews are a major crop throughout eastern Indonesia, with an estimated 300,000 smallholders involved in the production. However, a significant proportion of these smallholders are at or below the poverty line. This report outlines—from a supply chain approach—potential strategies to improve the incomes of smallholder cashew farmers in eastern Indonesia as part of a supply chain. The proposed strategies cover the areas of processing, agronomy, variety research, pests and disease, nutrition and soil management, and intercropping. The authors note that successful implementation of the proposed strategies requires strong involvement from all actors in the supply chain.