This study evaluates the benefits to smallholders and agribusinesses from participating in contract farming in Bali and West Nusa Tenggarra (NTB). Methodology involved surveying both contracted (n=150 in Bali and n=80 in NTB) and non-contracted farmers (n=150 in Bali and n=120 in NTB). Probit analysis was used to identify factors influencing smallholder contract participation. The report provides an initial summary of contract farming in agricultural development and specifically in Indonesia, as well as a brief characterisation of each region, their agricultural commodities and those that are currently contracted. The authors highlight the key differences between the two types of contracts studied: group-based seed rice production in Bali with similar contractor and non-contractor characteristics and contract participation influenced by irrigated land ownership and group membership; and individual-based broiler chicken production in NTB with significant differences between contractors and non-contractors. The benefits to smallholders from each type of contract are discussed. The authors outline considerations for contract development and recommend Indonesian policy makers explore mechanisms to expand these types of interactions.