The authors, researchers at the University of Mataram, examine the current conditions of livestock production systems in Lombok and Sumbawa to aid understanding of farmers' ability to adapt to changes in land use, socio-economic and agro-climatic conditions. They look specifically at the distribution and richness of species in different ecological sub-regions, as well as dynamics, drivers of change and potential future impacts. The research determines that the different biophysical, demographic and socio-economic conditions of Lombok and Sumbawa result in distinct livestock production systems. Nevertheless, land available for livestock production is rapidly declining in both locations and many farmers are yet to evolve from free grazing to the productive cut and carry system. If the capacity of farmers to respond to changes in the ecosystem and socio-economic conditions do not improve, livestock populations may decline in the near future. The researchers suggest that adaptation strategies should therefore be developed by drawing on existing best practices and empirical experience from similar conditions, and utilizing local knowledge.