The demand for maize as food and feed in Indonesia has been steadily increasing. Total national maize production has grown at 4.07 per cent per annum in the last three decades, thanks mainly to the adoption of improved production technologies, particularly hybrid seed. This high production, however, still fails to meet domestic demand and has caused a rapid increase in the net import of maize. This study presents the maize production systems in four major maize-producing provinces in Indonesia: Lampung, East Java, West Nusa Tenggara and South Sulawesi. It identifies important productivity constraints faced by maize farmers, including low grain prices during harvest; high input prices; large distances between maize production areas, feed mills and seed industries; lack of promotion of local improved maize varieties (OPVs and hybrids) by government research centres; and lack of farmer capital. The authors propose that farmers, the Government of Indonesia, and private companies should be encouraged to develop appropriate technology and policies, such as tariffs and credit systems, to overcome some of these constraints.