Despite various activities promoting improved water resource management and effective water use to produce high value vegetables, adoption has been limited. This study examined the economic and social constraints influencing farmer's non-adoption behaviour and key research areas to understand this behaviour. Information was obtained via desktop review and semi-structured interviews with farmers in East Nusa Tenggara and West Nusa Tenggara followed by a stakeholder workshop to validate findings. The report details constraints to improved water management in relation to technology adoption, market engagement, management of water infrastructure assets and social issues in water management. These include lack of capital and credit access, market price risk, production risks, inadequate incentives for water infrastructure maintenance, social attitude and gender factors, transportation and logistics, problematic extension and knowledge transfer, inadequate property rights structure and institutional problems in water management, labour and land constraints. The author outlines key areas for investigation including options for water infrastructure asset management; managing risk and uncertainty in high value crops; market price responses to changed supplies; and investigating social attitudes and perceptions to market engagement and technology adoption.