This article examines pest control and production management methods used by farmers in Sulawesi to improve cocoa bean quality and increase income from cocoa. Strategies investigated include those directed at increasing the number and size of cocoa pods, those aimed at reducing hosts for pest transmission, two input-intensive approaches, and the alternative of doing nothing beyond harvesting mature cocoa pods. The research also identifies factors correlated with choice of technique by using a multiple outcome model to measure the likelihood of a behavioural response given conditioning factors such as household and farm characteristics. Data was collected in 2005 from 600 households and 915 cocoa fields in one village in Luwu district. The findings suggest that spraying is a profitable management strategy and that modest gains in profit could be realised through greater use of fertiliser, and of both household and hired labour. The authors conclude that average increases in private returns from more intensive cocoa management appears to compensate for higher production costs, but observed extension efforts have not been correlated with higher profits among farmers in the sample.