This paper reports on three experiments evaluating Japanese tomato varieties for use in Indonesia. The experiments evaluate these varieties based on yield comparisons with the standard Indonesian variety, fruit characteristics for fresh and processing and seedling growth using three low cost, locally sourced seedling raising media. Results of each experiment are reported and discussed separately. The paper details the yield differences and summarises fruit characteristics including discussion of suitability for fresh or processing sectors. The experiments indicate the need for improved root knot nematode resistance in the Japanese varieties. The authors discuss options for improving productivity of Japanese varieties such as improved seedling preparation through good seedling media and the impacts of the different seedling media on seedling characteristics and yield. The paper does not make any recommendations or draw any conclusions from this work.
This study assesses contract farming in East Java and reports on the possibility of contract farming as a mechanism for improving the economic situation of smallholders. Study methodology involved the observation and survey of existing contract farming operations in East Java and desktop analysis. The study provides background information on contract farming frameworks and reports that contract farming was found in 57% of East Java's regencies/municipalities. It identified three models of contract farming in East Java: the informal model; the intermediary model; and the multipartite model, and provides details on the characteristics of each of these. The study highlights the need for further assessment, including a comparative study of all contract farming types in East Java with consideration of the positive and negative aspects on the local communities. The report also outlines the characteristics of different contract agreements.
Small-scale beef cattle production in East Java, Indonesia, is mostly undertaken to generate household income to meet current farm-household needs. This article presents research undertaken to understand the factors affecting the prices, hence the incomes, received by small-scale cattle producers in East Java. Research was conducted in two sites (one irrigated lowland and one rain-fed upland) in 2010-11, involving monthly monitoring with 184 farmers. Data was recorded for each of the 353 cattle sold during the two-year period. Cattle were sold in the village to local or district traders. The farm-gate price was regressed on six variables—liveweight, body condition score, cattle breed, age, reason for selling, and site. The age variable was omitted in the final model to avoid multi-collinearity. The estimated equation was significant and provided a good fit of the data (R2 = 0.77). The coefficients for all variables were positive and significant at the 5% level. The article concludes that buyer preferences and requirements are efficiently transmitted through traders to small-scale producers and expressed in farm-gate prices.
This article explores the factors that affect a farmer's decision to purchase seed potato in East Java. The research draws on a survey of 209 farmers from three central production areas: Pasuruan, Probolinggo and Batu Malang. Farmers were asked to rate the importance of 34 variables believed to influence a farmer's decision to purchase seed potatoes. The results reveal that the availability of seed at planting time, along with the availability of resources such as land and labour, are the most important factors influencing farmers' decisions to purchase seed. The lack of good quality seed available at planting time means that farmers are often forced to plant whatever seed is available. As a result, farmers typically use their own seed—retaining around 15-20 per cent from the previous harvest—until it degenerates. Only then do farmers tend to purchase improved seed. Given that demand for potato seed in Indonesia outstrips supply, potato farmers still rely heavily on high quality imported seed. However, the high cost of imported seed means that most farmers buy seed from their local supplier that has been multiplied several times.
One of the major constraints facing crop production in developing countries is a lack of low-cost, quality seed. In this paper, Fuglie et al. present a model of the market for seed, in which clean seed is treated as a capital good providing benefits over several seasons. To determine the farm demand for clean seed, they then apply this model to potato seed in Indonesia. The research uses data gathered from a survey of 182 potato farmers in the major potato growing areas of the country. Findings show that Indonesian potato farmers are well aware of the value of quality seed in potato production, but the high cost (three to four times the price of seed purchased through the informal system) remains a major constraint. Nevertheless, marginal returns to disease-free seed appear to significantly exceed marginal costs, indicating that improving supply of quality seed will contribute strongly to productivity growth in potato. The authors discuss several policy options to encourage supply and utilization of quality potato seed, asserting that the potato seed system cannot be isolated from support for potato breeding and crop improvement generally.
This report presents the details of a case study exploring livelihood patterns of farmer households and linkages with the production and marketing of cashew nuts on the island of Flores. It aimed to understand and identify livelihood constraints in order to fully understand and monitor the impact of a Swisscontact/VECO-Indonesia pilot project on certification and processing of organic cashew nuts in Flores. The study used the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (developed by DFID) to analyse complex livelihood patterns in four villages in Central and Eastern Flores. The study revealed that the livelihood strategies of farmers in the target areas were highly diverse and led to different levels of vulnerability, largely caused by 'seasonal stress'—a term referring to periods of low income and food availability. Furthermore, cashew nuts were found to be the most important source of income for between 25-70 per cent of households in the surveyed villages, showing strong linkages between production and marketing of cashew nuts and farmer livelihoods. The report concludes with a set of recommendations in relation to livelihoods, marketing and the pilot project on certification of organic cashew nuts.
In Indonesia, chillies are a priority crop commonly produced by smallholders and, like many other cash crops, several farmer-trader issues are emerging in chilli supply chains. Current literature suggests that improving relationship quality among food chain actors enhances efficiency. This paper contributes to this literature by examining chilli farmer's perceptions of relationship quality with their buyers, using trust, satisfaction and commitment as variables. The authors use data from a survey of 602 chilli farmers selling to the traditional market channel or supermarket channel in West Java. Chilli farmers were categorized into four clusters, with differing perceptions on relationship quality, price satisfaction and chilli production characteristics. The differences across clusters suggest that targeted strategies are required to optimize farmer-trader relationships. The main limitation of the article is that the study was restricted to farmers perspectives only, thus the authors indicate that further research needs to be undertaken that measures buyers perspectives in order to develop a more in-depth understanding of farmer-buyer relationships in chilli supply chains.
This study uses maize to examine the potential for increasing the income of coarse grain, pulse, root and tuber farmers and employment in East Java. The study focuses on the development of industrial linkages and market opportunities (feed, alcohol, starch and corn oil). Four surveys were conducted: a survey of village officials to identify a case study village; a household survey (n= 81) for socio economics; a household income survey (n=34) and a market survey (n=102). The report explores the maize market structure, the development of agribusiness and impacts on the maize market, maize quality as being critical for the development of industrial linkages, access to credit, and characteristics of the rural financial market. The author provides details on various considerations to improve farmer incomes, including development of agribusiness (improved quality and marketing, access to credit, implementation of local drying facilities), access to investment capital and standardisation of financial commodities, standardisation of maize product markets, improved access to accurate market information, development of mutual linkages between farmers, traders and agribusiness, and maintenance of land fertility.
A significant constraint to shallot production is damage by the onion caterpillar (Spodoptera exigua) which can cause yield losses of 45-57%. This study assesses farmer knowledge and effectiveness of insecticides for S. exigua control in shallots in West Java and Central Java. Data was sourced via group discussions and individual interviews (n=100) and analysed using descriptive statistical method and content analysis. Respondent characteristics are briefly reported. The discussion encompasses farmer perceptions of shallot pests, knowledge of pesticide formulations, sources of pesticide information and details farmer pest control strategies. The report identifies that 60% of pesticides used are not government approved and that control strategies are based on short interval (1-2 days), high concentration (150-200% of recommendation) sprays mixes of 2-6 insecticides. The author discusses resistance implications and potential synergistic, antagonistic or neutral impact of spray mixes and the effectiveness of farmer control strategies as indicated by crop damage. Further research areas are summarised as: confirmation of S. mauritia pest status; development of an effective information dissemination system; control options that comprise effective control; ovicidal activity; and identification of synergistic insecticide mixtures.
In this article, Da Silva and Murdolelono assess the feasibility of new maize cultivation technology in enhancing maize productivity, farmer income and food security among farming households in East Nusa Tenggara. The authors use data gathered through an experiment with 30 farmers in South Timor Tengah district during the 2007/08 rainy season. The new technologies were the open-pollenated maize variety Srikandi and recommendations on fertilizers and plant spacing. The results demonstrate that the applied maize technology increased productivity to 3.4 t ha-1 compared to 1.7 t ha-1 using existing farmer practices. Farmer's income was also found to have increased significantly, from Rp 2.4 million to Rp 4.8 million. Farmers responded positively to the Srikandi maize because it gave them higher productivity and enabled an earlier harvest (by 20 days) than their local variety. The authors thus conclude that the new maize technology is worth disseminating on a wider scale in East Nusa Tenggara.