While maize production in Indonesia continues to increase, the country remains a net importer of maize. This report details the maize value chain from producers through to processors and retailers, and identifies opportunities for future development activities for increased competitiveness and farmer income in Eastern Indonesia. Analysis was informed by interviews with key sectors of the maize value chain in West Nusa Tenggara, East Java and East Nusa Tenggara. Gender roles and environmental issues were also explored to ensure suggested changes to the value chain positively impact women and the environment. Value chain constraints identified include: lack of technical knowledge on crop management and post-harvest handling, limited knowledge of or access to improved maize seed varieties, lack of input credit to optimise maize returns per hectare, lack of facilities to effectively dry maize and monitor moisture content, and limited training and access to post harvest storage technologies. Market-based solutions and associated activities are suggested including farmer training and capacity building of value chain suppliers and service providers. The report highlights a number of areas for further research before any design or implementation of value chain interventions.
This study provides a detailed characterisation and analysis of the mango value chain in Situbondo, East Java, and North Lombok, Nusa Tenggara Barat and identification of potential pro-poor interventions, with an emphasis on private sector involvement. The study was guided by the M4P framework and involved a review of existing knowledge and collection of primary data through focus group discussions with farmers and traders, individual semi-structured interviews with value chain stakeholders, direct observation methods during field visits to villages, enterprise facilities, markets and modern retail outlets, and a structured questionnaire to collect farm price and cost data. Proposed interventions focus on enabling off-season production, development of exports and upstream quality chains. The report also discusses strategies for these points of intervention. Key findings are reported against three areas: poverty, gender and environment and outline the impacts of value chain interventions. The authors conclude with a summary of key research gaps encompassing export development, farm technologies, varieties, processing, value chain margins, price incentives for quality investment, business models of wholesalers and exporters and production data gaps.
This paper examines the economic feasibility of best-bet feeding strategies to increase live weight gain of early weaned Bali calves to identify opportunities for increased profit above feed costs on-farm. The research evaluates 53 feeding strategies in 14 on-station experiments in Central Sulawesi, East Java, East Nusa Tenggara and West Nusa Tenggara. The best-bet feeding strategy at each site was implemented, monitored and adapted on-farm in villages for six months. Results show an increase in smallholder profits compared to prevailing practices in all but one village in East Nusa Tenggara where there was no difference. The highest profit above feed cost was achieved through supplementation of commonly utilized low quality feeds with feeds high in crude protein. The revenue over cost ranged from 2.5 to 7.5, with profitability from Rp. 1.1 to 2 million/head/six months. The paper concludes that there is considerable potential to improve the feeding management of weaned Bali calves and increase farmers' income by using locally available feed resources. Tree legumes provide the greatest potential to increase farm income and have not been fully utilized as a feed source for Bali cattle in Indonesia.
Lampung is the primary cassava producing region in Indonesia, yet the province regularly experiences prolonged dry periods. This study examines drought tolerance for varietal selection prior to distribution, assessing the potential impact of drought (two or more months of <100mm rainfall) on root yield, starch yield and content in five selected varieties. Trial design comprised a 0.1ha plot of each variety (no replication) with sub-plots of staggered planting dates to impose dry periods at different growth stages. Results found no varietal difference in root yields in the absence of a dry period. However, root yields were reduced between 14.88t/ha and 20.11t/ha with exposure to a dry period. CMR30-56-1 was ranked the most drought tolerant and Adira 4 the least drought tolerant. Starch yields were reduced by 50 per cent when subject to a dry period and yield reductions increased with length of the dry period. Dry conditions between the third and eighth month after planting had the greatest impact on yield suggesting that rain during this period is critical for root bulking. Effects on starch content were also assessed as starch content is a price determinant for fresh cassava. Dry periods reduced starch content, but to a lesser extent, one to three months before harvest.
Mango has potential as a significant horticultural industry in Indonesia but it has a limited shelf life. Freezing is an option for improving the shelf life of mango. This paper assesses different periods of immersion in liquid nitrogen and different storage periods on a range of chemical characteristics of mango. The experiment was based on a factorial completely randomised design with four immersion and four storage periods. The paper presents and discusses results in terms of the following characteristics: vitamin C content; total acid and pH; total soluble solids, brightness, sensoric quality (taste, colour, flavour and appearance) and microbial analysis. The discussion encompasses how the immersion and storage time treatments influence each of these characteristics. The authors concluded that immersion for 40 seconds in liquid nitrogen gave the best quality when stored for three months and detail the results for each of the assessed characteristics.
This paper reports on the 'ACIAR cassava project in Indonesia', where a farmer participatory approach was used in an effort to increase the productivity of cassava-based cropping systems via adoption of higher yielding varieties and improved cultural practices. The report commences with a brief history of cassava research and development efforts in Indonesia, before providing quite an extensive methodology section outlining the farmer participatory research trials that were conducted. Trials were conducted on both experimental stations by the project team, and on farmers' fields by farmers with project staff providing extension support. They focussed on soil fertility management, plant spacing and nitrogen fertilization for leaf production, varietal evaluation and improvement, and on-farm animal feeding. The paper contains a simple to understand flow chart of the farmer participatory model used, before outlining the project achievements against the project objectives. Data obtained during the trials is presented in numerous tables with some analysis of the results. Conclusions for cassava in the trial areas are presented, along with some recommendations for future research. The authors accurately conclude that a longer timeframe is required to fully determine the clear impacts from projects delivering technology transfer.
Coffee is one of the most important agricultural commodities for Indonesia either as an income source for millions of farming households or for foreign exchange earnings. The country produces a number of specialty coffees from different geographical origins having a distinctive cup taste profile. This paper provides an overview of the experience of Indonesia in establishing a geographical indication (GI) protection system from the starting point to the present progress. It draws on a pilot project that successfully implemented the GI protection system for Arabica coffee in the Kintamani highlands of Bali, which led to the first GI protection certificate for Kintamani Bali Arabica coffee being issued by the Directorate General for Intellectual Property Rights. One of the benefits of GI certification that the author notes in his overview is the increased price of Arabica coffee produced by farmers, which rose from around US$0.70 per kg to around US$3.10 per kg, resulting in an increase in farmer's income. According to the author, implementation of GI protection in Indonesia is moving forward gradually, with new applications from several origin products.