This paper examines collective action as an option for addressing obstacles for smallholders linking to markets, specifically for marketing of underutilised tropical fruits. These are of importance for nutrition, cultural value and contribution to income and improved market chains will increase income and incentives for production to maintain diversity. The report includes a description of the conceptual framework for collective action. The report comprises three cases studies as examples of good marketing practices for biodiversity. These include: kokum in India; cowa in Thailand; and pomelo in Indonesia. The results briefly describe each case study including the crop and its production, the driver for the collective action, the structure and conduct, performance and biodiversity. The discussion focuses on the characteristics of collective action in practice, and in particular how they relate to each case study including collective action as a social process, transaction costs, improved market chains, networks for information change, social learnings and incentive, decision and investment issues. The authors also outline the factors that may limit the success of collective action and highlight that alternative strategies such as vertical integration may need to be considered.
The high prices of new maize seed varieties in Indonesia has prevented some farmers, especially those in remote areas, from accessing high quality seed to increase their yields. This study aimed to accelerate the distribution of new high yield varieties by establishing community-based seed production systems at the village level to produce and provide high quality seed at an affordable price for farmers. Research was carried out in South Sulawesi and West Nusa Tenggara provinces between 2002 and 2004. Several seed varieties were tried and tested by farmers to first establish their preference based on local needs and conditions. Farmers in both locations preferred the Lamuru variety, which they began producing and distributing at both the community level and to nearby provinces. Results confirm that the local seed growers were able to produce high quality seed and disseminate them to local farmers. In South Sulawesi, for example, seed sold by local growers increased from 57 tons in 2003 to 92.5 tons in 2004. The authors therefore conclude that establishing community-based seed production systems can lead to accelerated distribution of new high-yielding seed varieties.
This paper assesses whether supermarkets adversely affect traditional food retailers in traditional markets of Indonesia. The study methodology involved data collection from traders in treatment (supermarket within 5km) markets (n=249), traders in control markets (n=151) and in-depth interviews (n=37) with a range of additional stakeholders. The paper reports no significant effect of supermarkets on traditional markets in terms of profit and revenue, yet traditional traders experienced continued decline in their business. Discussion of the qualitative data provides explanatory information to support this result. This includes consumer preferences and perception of the alternative shopping experiences, preference for continuing existing long term business relationships, differing consumer segments, and the intense competitions between traditional food retailers and other traders and street vendors (66.2% of traders perceive other traders and street vendors as their main competitors). The paper outlines policy recommendations that would increase the competitiveness of the traditional markets including: improved traditional market infrastructure; improved market management practices; organisation/regulation of street vendors. The author does highlight the short term of the study and a longer term study may reveal additional findings.
This report provides a useful overview of the cattle and goat sectors in Indonesia, as well as the key government policies affecting them. One interesting remark in the report is that local farmers have more readily adapted to goat farming compared to cattle farming, largely due to the relatively lower cost of entry and the simpler management of goat farms. This is a supporting factor for increased investment in the sector. Furthermore, given that most goat farmers have learned the trade from family members, it is fairly easy to achieve natural growth in goat farming with minimal direct assistance from government. Based on government projections for growth in the beef and goat sectors, the report highlights that by 2014 the Indonesian market will have a demand for 3.6 million head of beef cattle and 4.6 million head of goats. If the government's programmes to increase the beef and goat populations are successful, this will still result in a shortfall of around 420,000 head of cattle and 1.2 million head of goats. This indicates that opportunities to expand production to meet demand are still high.
This report briefly examines government intervention as an option for developing mango supply chains from disorganised and segmented to organised and integrated. The report includes a brief theoretical review of supply chain management and complex adaptive systems. Methodology included interviews with stakeholders over three time periods. The paper then reports on two case studies of government intervention in West Java and East Java including a description of the supply chains, the interventions and the responses to the intervention along the supply chain. In these cases, the government intervention focused on exclusion of the middlemen. The authors provide insights into the failure of these interventions. An alternative model to achieve self-organising supply chain formation is discussed based on theory and the learnings from the case studies. The authors highlight the need to recognise the self-organising characteristics of supply chains and consider these when designing interventions.
This paper explores the experience of contract farming between Garuda Food—represented locally by PT Bumi Mekar Tani—and peanut smallholders in West Nusa Tenggara. The research uses data gathered from a survey of 713 smallholders (contract and non-contract farmers) from 72 farmers groups in seven peanut growing districts, as well as semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. Overall, the findings suggest that the contract farming has a positive effect on the peanut sector, improving contract farmer's incomes, generating employment, and improving the quality of conditions in the peanut sector, including price determination. The program has also increased farmer's access to credit, and strengthened social capital and learning between members. However, weaknesses in the program need to be addressed, including the unbalanced contractual relationship between firm and farmers, unclear risk management for farmers, and social impacts on labour and gender (peanuts used to be the domain of women). The paper provides useful insights on the actual experiences of contract farmers to complement existing research on the economic impacts of the model.
This study evaluates the benefits to smallholders and agribusinesses from participating in contract farming in Bali and West Nusa Tenggarra (NTB). Methodology involved surveying both contracted (n=150 in Bali and n=80 in NTB) and non-contracted farmers (n=150 in Bali and n=120 in NTB). Probit analysis was used to identify factors influencing smallholder contract participation. The report provides an initial summary of contract farming in agricultural development and specifically in Indonesia, as well as a brief characterisation of each region, their agricultural commodities and those that are currently contracted. The authors highlight the key differences between the two types of contracts studied: group-based seed rice production in Bali with similar contractor and non-contractor characteristics and contract participation influenced by irrigated land ownership and group membership; and individual-based broiler chicken production in NTB with significant differences between contractors and non-contractors. The benefits to smallholders from each type of contract are discussed. The authors outline considerations for contract development and recommend Indonesian policy makers explore mechanisms to expand these types of interactions.
This report outlines global cashew market trends to inform planning for future Indonesian cashew programs. The report discusses global cashew trade including nut production, in shell cashew trade, cashew kernel supply, global cashew kernel imports and kernel prices. Drivers and trends in the global food market with potential impacts on cashew are outlined including, demographics and economic growth, prices and substitutions, national regulatory issues, private and ethical standards relating to hygiene and social and environmental responsibility, healthy eating choices and options for innovation. The report summarises kernel grades, certification requirements, value adding and innovation options for major import markets including, the US, Europe, Eastern Europe, Middle East, Japan and Australia. The limited methodology provided in the report indicates that the information on cashew import markets was sourced through stakeholder interviews. The report includes some discussion of by-products and alternative uses of cashew products such as cashew apple and cashew nut shell liquid. In concluding, the authors list key points based on the opportunities for suppliers in various regional markets, key production and consumption trends, regulatory issues and food grading standards and options for value adding.