This paper provides a useful overview of government policies and regulations relating to the seed industry covering the early stage of the formal seed industry, seed trade, seed certification, crop varieties protection and seed producer's registration. Seed policies are generally renewed by the government along with progress in the seed industry. The paper also assesses the conduct of the National Seed Agency and its related institutions in controlling production and marketing of corn seed in East Java. The National Seed Agency is one of four government institutions dealing with national policies on seed industry and was set up specifically to control seed production and distribution among seed producers in Indonesia. One of the major challenges highlighted by the author is the open sale of uncertified hybrid corn seed in several regencies in East Java, which is punishable under the Act on Crops Practice 12/1992. However, the government has not taken any action to implement the law. The author thus notes the need for government to implement law enforcement to protect both producers and consumers.
This study examined the effects of fertiliser, mulch, cultivation and time of sowing on the growth and yield of peanut, mungbean and soybean following rainfed lowland rice. The study involved research stations or farm field experiments in East Java and Sulawesi. Trial design was a randomised incomplete block with four replicates and treatments applied as an incomplete factorial combination. The results indicated that mulch did not improve yield except in drier areas due to water conservation effects, and fertiliser application improved legume yield (the magnitude of which varied between site, crop and season) where water availability was not limiting indicating that residual fertiliser following rice is inadequate. It further demonstrated that tillage could partially alleviate the adverse soil physical condition induced during the rice phase and increased peanut yield possibly due to soil structure benefits on pod development. The authors concluded that correct timing of crop establishment was the most important factor for post-rice grain legume production then soil water availability. Sowing immediately after rice harvest in the rainy season will ensure high establishment rates and yield.
The demand for cassava has increased significantly in the past 40 years. Area harvested has however declined, but yields have more than doubled in this time. This paper commences with a summary of cassava production in Indonesia since its introduction in the 18th century, the initial development of exports and development of cassava in dried forms as a means of addressing food scarcity. The paper spends a small amount of time considering the consequences of the development of the cassava starch industry, and significantly more time on hydrogen cyanide toxicity, where it gets quite scientific. The paper then moves into a discussion about agronomic aspects of cassava production and varieties, and the expansion of cassava growing in Indonesia. It touches on the management of waste and reduction of impact on the environment. A number of general conclusions are reached by the authors, but no recommendations for future research are made. A reasonable understanding of agronomics and chemical terminology would be recommended to fully appreciate the content of the paper.
This study examines the impact of increasing supermarket presence and their procurement system on horticulture supply chains (using tomato in West Java as a case study) and on farmers. Methodology involved key informant interviews, farmer field surveys (n=600), stakeholder focus groups and participatory rural appraisals (n=8). The report briefly outlines changes in food retailing in Indonesia and the development of the supermarket sector and highlights the dominance of imports in supermarket sales. Supermarket procurement systems and supply chain relationships with wholesalers and farmers are also discussed including deficiencies in traditional supply chains and preferences for alternative supply channels. The report examines the determinants and effects of farmer participation in different market channels, including a value chain analysis, and involving descriptive and econometric analyses which ranks the different market channels and details variations in farmer retail price share. The author concludes with discussion of the issues and challenges, relating to supermarket development. Policy interventions discussed in the report can be summarised as: agricultural support services; rural producer organisations; rural infrastructure; access to financial services; market intelligence; public product standards; and land rental markets.
Indonesia's specialty coffees have distinct and unique taste profiles based on their geographic origin. This paper assesses the impact of three processing methods (wet processed dry hulling (WPDH), wet processed wet hulling (WPWH) or pulped natural (PN)) on the cup profiles of three dominant Flores Arabica varieties ('Juria' (Typica type), S 795 and Hybrid of Timor (HdT)). Dominant varieties were identified through surveys of Arabica coffee farms in the Flores highland area of Ngada Bajawa. Cup profiles were assessed by 44 domestic and international taste panellists and evaluated fragrance and aroma, flavour, acidity, body, after taste, balance and overall preference. S 795 had the preferred cup profile with excellent balance of fragrance and aroma, flavour, acidity, and body with strong sweet tones. Processing method did not have a significant effect on the cup taste profile of S 795. Wet Processed Wet Hulling resulted in improved taste components for HdT. The local variety Juria had lower cup profiles than S 795 and HdT with the best cup profile achieved through Pulped Natural processing.
Despite various activities promoting improved water resource management and effective water use to produce high value vegetables, adoption has been limited. This study examined the economic and social constraints influencing farmer's non-adoption behaviour and key research areas to understand this behaviour. Information was obtained via desktop review and semi-structured interviews with farmers in East Nusa Tenggara and West Nusa Tenggara followed by a stakeholder workshop to validate findings. The report details constraints to improved water management in relation to technology adoption, market engagement, management of water infrastructure assets and social issues in water management. These include lack of capital and credit access, market price risk, production risks, inadequate incentives for water infrastructure maintenance, social attitude and gender factors, transportation and logistics, problematic extension and knowledge transfer, inadequate property rights structure and institutional problems in water management, labour and land constraints. The author outlines key areas for investigation including options for water infrastructure asset management; managing risk and uncertainty in high value crops; market price responses to changed supplies; and investigating social attitudes and perceptions to market engagement and technology adoption.
This report presents a value chain analysis of the peanut industry in West Nusa Tenggara. It shows that peanuts have a ready market in Indonesia but seasonal peaks in supply and lack of local ability to adequately dry, process and store peanuts limits smallholder earning potential. Research is required on improved seed varieties and best operational practices including cultivation versus direct planting, irrigation, fertiliser, weed and pest control. Cash flow problems with inputs (after the rice harvest) could be reduced or eliminated with farmer business management training. Cooperative groups of farmers would provide the potential to develop access to finance, processing, storage and markets. Garuda foods have established a processing facility in Lombok and seek a greater supply of quality peanuts, presenting an opportunity for SADI to assist farm groups to link with Garuda and develop their cooperative activities with an assured market. While improvements within the value chain have the potential to improve net profits for farmers, the analysis shows that understanding of farmer's overall annual farming operation, family and community needs is required for interventions to be adopted and contribute to overall improvements in smallholder income and welfare.
This report presents a sector profile and value chain analysis of the shallot industry in West Nusa Tenggara, identifying potential areas for SADI program support. The research shows that shallots are a profitable but potentially high risk niche crop in some parts of the province, particularly Bima. Apart from assisting with the problems of financing the relatively high value of inputs, such as seed, fertiliser, water, weed and pest control, the SADI program could seek to research seed varieties and the most economical way to produce propagation materials (bulbs) locally, potentially saving significantly on input costs and improving yields and bulb quality. The analysis also shows that there is potential to better link production with markets elsewhere in Indonesia. However, further research is required to explore possible linkages between end users or processors (in Java, Kalimantan and Makassar) and cooperative groups, which could be developed to improve marketing, buying and financial service activities.
In this report, Dipokusumo et al. examine the impacts of government policy on the profitability of wetland and dryland soybean in West Nusa Tenggara and the extent to which the province has a comparative advantage in soybean production. The research uses data collected through interviews with 90 soybean farmers, as well as policymakers, end users, extension agents and traders, in the districts of Central Lombok, Sumbawa and Bima. It uses the Policy Analysis Matrix as a data analysis tool. Findings show positive profits at both private and social prices, meaning that farmers have an incentive to grow soybeans under the current (no tariff) policy regime. Positive social profits indicate that soybeans also have a comparative advantage in West Nusa farming systems. Under these conditions there is no reason to distort prices in an effort to increase land devoted to soybeans. The authors suggest that government intervention should instead focus on improved extension services and better research programs that would lead to more productive soybean varieties. This type of research is important as it reinforces the need for Indonesia to promote agricultural production in order to avoid becoming dependent on foreign markets.