This is a comprehensive reference source documenting past research and development activities in agricultural value chains in Eastern Indonesia. The bibliography covers the ten commodities studied in detail under EI-ADO (maize, beef, peanut, soybean, mungbean, mangos, shallot, chilli, tomato and potato), as well as cassava, cocoa, coffee, cashews, goats, pigs and seaweed. The cross-cutting themes of integrated farming systems, contract farming and value chain markets are also covered. The bibliography focuses on references published since 2000. The references are mainly in English with some key Bahasa Indonesia references included.

A value chain assessment of the cocoa sector in Indonesia

Author: Badcock S., Matlick B. and Bako Baon J. Publication Date: 2007

The competitive advantage of Indonesian cocoa production has been threatened by poor and inconsistent quality. This report includes a desktop analysis to identify the key issues impacting on the cocoa value chain and details proposed interventions to benefit cocoa production, quality and smallholder income. Field visits were undertaken to identify the issues facing smallholders and potential collaborators for intervention. The following key interventions were recommended: farmer training programs in pest and disease management and post-harvest handling and quality issues with a training target of 20 000 farmers over 3 years within the provinces of South, Southeast and West Sulawesi; and establishment of a price premium paid to smallholders for export grade cocoa through direct market linkages and partnership with a key exporter and US based cocoa bean processor. The report also summarises potential areas for leveraging and collaboration with various cocoa stakeholders as well as various training delivery mechanisms. The authors detail guidelines for implementation of the recommended cocoa interventions.

Publisher: USAID

A value chain assessment of the livestock sector of Indonesia

Author: Sullivan G. and Diwyanto K. Publication Date: 2007

This report presents the findings of a rapid assessment of the beef value chain in seven provinces in Indonesia. Data was collected through interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private sectors at all levels of the value chain. The findings reveal that the productivity of the beef breeding herd in Indonesia is low compared to other meat exporting countries in the region. Critical impediments found were crowded market channels, high inter-regional transport costs, under-utilization of renovated slaughter houses, and a decline in the number of wet markets in cities due to expansion of larger supermarkets. The report suggests that improving the efficiency of the beef industry through better integration and vertical coordination within the beef value chain should be an overarching goal of USAID's support to the livestock sector in Indonesia. It further proposes a focus on Bali cattle, as an opportunity to focus on a breed unique to Indonesia and for potential spillover affects to other breeds and the entire beef value chain in Indonesia.

Publisher: United States Agency for International Development, AMARTA (Agribusiness Market and Support Activity)

A whole-farm system approach to enhancing Bali cattle production in the mixed crop/livestock systems of Eastern Indonesia.

Author: McDonald C., Lisson S., MacLeod N., Rahman R., Wirajaswadi L., Panjaitan T. et al. Publication Date: 2004

While many forages suitable for improving livestock production in mixed crop-livestock systems in the tropics have been identified, their adoption has been limited. Before farmers will introduce new forages into their farming system an important prerequisite is that the change will be considered profitable, will have an acceptable level of risk and will not interfere with food security. This paper describes a whole farm systems approach used to identify the benefits of new forages to improve Bali cattle production in the smallholder mixed crop-livestock systems of eastern Indonesia. Data collection took place with farmers, village heads and extension staff in four villages in Sulawesi and Sumbawa. Preliminary analyses indicate that retaining residue from grain legume crops, growing tree legumes as living fences or hedgerows, and elephant grass all contribute to increased animal production by reducing annual forage deficit. This, in turn, decreases labour requirements in the late dry season as fodder does not have to be obtained from long distances. These findings suggest that substantial improvements can be made to farm profitability and family welfare from within the resources and constraints of current farming practices.

Publisher: In 'Proceedings Seminar Nasional Pemberdayaan Petani Miskin di Lahan Marginal Melalui Inovasi Teknologi Tepat Guna, Mataram 2004' Pp. 1-8

Accelerating adoption of suitable cultural practices of maize to minimize the yield gap and increase farmers' income in Karo, North Sumatra.

Author: Akmal, Yufdy M.P. and Girsang S.S. Publication Date: 2010

The paper examines the adoption of site-specific nutrient management (SSNM) by maize farmers in North Sumatra and its impact on production and farmers' income. The SSNM introduced to farmers was recommended by a study conducted in the region in 2004-2007: 160 kg ha-1 N, 72 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 90 kg ha-1 K2O. The study also disseminated a new high-yielding variety of maize together with recommendations for planting density and the number of seeds per hole. Research was carried out in five sites in Tigabinanga sub-district—a dryland farming region located 600-700m above mean sea level. Thirty-two per cent of farmers followed the fertilizer recommendations, which saw an 11.49 per cent increase in production (9,353 t ha-1) compared to traditional farmer practices (8,278 t ha-1). Farmers' income increased by 17.13 per cent from Rp. 9,563.840 to Rp. 11,541.340. Due to labour constraints, farmers did not follow all the recommend practices. However, the authors note that this could be solved by introducing seed planters, as well as fertilizer applicators to minimize labour costs. This research contributes to identifying suitable technologies and practices that can increase farmer productivity and labour efficiency.

Publisher: In 'Maize for Asia: emerging trends and technologies. Proceeding of the 10th Asian Regional Maize Workshop, Makassar, Indonesia, 20-23 October 2008', ed. by P.H. Zaidi, M. Azrai and K.V. Pixley. CIMMYT

Acceleration of seed distribution through community-based seed production in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

Author: Saenong S., Lalu M.S., Rahmawati, and Hosang E. Publication Date: 2010

This article presents the findings of a study that introduces community-based seed production of new open-pollenated maize varieties that are suited to the local environment, as well as the sociological conditions and farmer's preferences, in East Nusa Tenggara. It aims to accelerate distribution of these high quality seeds in sufficient quantities and at affordable prices in order to increase maize productivity for farmers. Experiments were conducted over a two year period in one village in Kupang district, recording grain yield, return:cost ratio, income generation, rate of distribution, and farmer's responses to the new varieties. Results show that the new variety of seed introduced by community-based seed production was well adopted by local farmers and sold at acceptable prices. Seed growers received a benefit of Rp 10,476,000ha-1 at a return:cost ratio of 2:9. The authors conclude that community-based seed production is suitable for extension to other villages where farmers have difficulty accessing high-yield seed varieties that are suited to both their agroclimatic zone and personal preferences.

Publisher: In 'Maize for Asia: emerging trends and technologies. Proceeding of the 10th Asian Regional Maize Workshop, Makassar, Indonesia, 20-23 October 2008', ed. by P.H. Zaidi, M. Azrai and K.V. Pixley. CIMMYT

ACIAR investment in research on forages in Indonesia

Author: Martin, G. Publication Date: 2010

One of the major constraints to improving livestock production of Bali cattle is the quantity and quality of available animal feed. Improving feed quality by introducing higher quality forages can go a long way towards removing some of those constraints. This report provides an overview and analysis of six ACIAR-funded forage research projects in Indonesia, focused on increasing the adoption of productivity-improving technologies to enhance the incomes and livelihoods of crop-livestock smallholders in eastern Indonesia. Given that adoption of technologies by farmers is still at any early stage, analysis focused on what might happen and why. The findings demonstrate observable gains in livestock performance and a high degree of interest and enthusiasm among best-bet and scale-out farmers. However, the author notes the difficulty in making assessments of future adoption when a key factor is the nature and level of future institutional support.

Journal: ACIAR Impact Assessment Series Report No. 65
Publisher: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research

Added value and performance analyses of Edamame soybean supply chain: a case study

Author: Feifi D., Marimin, Martini S., Astuti R., Suharjito. and Hidayat S. Publication Date: 2010

This study encompasses profiling of the Edamame supply chain management, analysis of value adding and performance at each part of the supply chain and concludes with recommendations to improve performance of the supply chain. The report includes a generalist literature review focusing on management, performance and added value analyses of perishable product supply chains and specifically outlining Edamame characteristics and production data. Primary data was sourced through in- depth interviews with supply chain participants and secondary data from a desktop analysis. The paper outlines the Edamame supply chain roles and responsibilities, mechanism of interactions and risk profiles. Case study analysis of a West Java Edamame supply chain was discussed in terms of added value to farmers, processors and retailers. The supply chain processor, received the highest added value (24% for packaged, 28% for unsorted Edamame), approximately 50% of farmer groups had negative added values and retailers received 10-20% added value. Performance analysis of suppliers compared farmer financial (revenue and production costs) and operational (quantity, quality and on-time delivery) performance. There was also discussion of the managerial implications to improve supply chain responsiveness and efficiency.

Journal: Added value and performance analyses of Edamame soybean supply chain: a case study. Operations and Supply Chain Management 3(3), 148-163

Advantages, constraints and key success factors in establishing origin- and tradition-linked quality signs: the case of Kintamani Bali Arabica coffee geographical indication, Indonesia

Author: Mawardi S. Publication Date: 2009

Indonesia produces a range of agricultural products with quality reputations based on geographical origin. This report outlines the establishment of geographical indication (GI) for the protection of Kintamani Bali Arabica coffee and implementation considerations for GI systems. It includes background information on GI systems under Indonesian law, characterisation of the Kintamani Bali region and production and quality requirements. Information was collected via desktop study and interviews with various stakeholders in the Kintamani Bali Arabica coffee value chain. Establishment of a GI system requires numerous stakeholders which are detailed in this report along with their roles and the organisation required. An impact analysis encompassing a range of factors such as economic and social impacts, capacity building requirements, successes and opportunities, strengths and limitations is discussed. This program has resulted in: improved farmer understanding of the importance of taste quality and the management practices to achieve it and a collaborative focus by supply chain stakeholders on improving quality. Stakeholder expectations are for sustained premium quality, improved coffee farmer livelihoods, environmental benefits from improved management and greater market opportunities.

Publisher: FAO

Aflatoxin in Indonesian peanuts: how can the contamination within the food chain be managed?

Author: Dharmaputra O.S., Rahmianna A.A., Rachaputi N.R., Wright G.C. and Mills G. Publication Date: 2004

This paper examines the problem of aflatoxin in Indonesian peanuts and discusses potential initiatives to minimize contamination at pre and postharvest stages. The research uses data from 62 farmers, penebas, collectors, processors and retailers in Pati Regency, Central Java, during the wet and dry seasons in 2002. The findings revealed that the highest percentages of samples infected by Aspergillus flavus (100 per cent in both seasons) and contaminated by aflatoxin (2-124 and <4-342 ppb during wet and dry seasons, respectively) were found in raw kernels of peanuts collected from retailers in traditional markets. It found that pre and postharvest handling methods prior to peanuts being delivered to retailers (especially at the retailer level in traditional markets) severely impact on aflatoxin contamination levels in the Indonesian food chain. The authors present a number of pre and postharvest practices to help minimize aflatoxin contamination in Indonesian peanuts. Critical to further development of this work is a concentrated effort to monitor postharvest handling methods by farmers, collectors and retailers in traditional markets and identify the critical control points for potential changes needed in their procedures.

Publisher: In 'Agriproduct supply chain management in developing countries', ed. by G.I. Johnson, and P.J. Hofman. ACIAR Proceedings No. 119e, 88-97. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research

Agronomic characteristics and yield potential of promising maize hybrids in dryland agroecosystems of Western Nusa Tenggara.

Author: Hipi A., Erawati B.T., Azrai M. and Takdir A. Publication Date: 2010

Maize is an important commodity in Nusa Tenggara Barat province as it has a strategic role in meeting the food needs of the people and the demand of feed industries in the region. However, raising productivity to meet the growing demand for maize requires the use of hybrids with high yield potential. This paper examines the potential yield of hybrids of harapan grown in dryland agro-ecosystems. Research was carried out in Perigi village—the centre of dryland maize production—in Suela subdistrict of Lombok Timur during the 2005/2006 rainy season. Fourteen hybrids were tested using a randomized complete block design with four replications. The tested hybrids were relatively similar in plant height and ear length. For control purposes, Bima-1 and BISI-2 hybrids were also used. The findings reveal that of the 14 tested hybrids, six were higher yielding than the controls, including Nei92002/Mr4 (9.22 t ha-1), Mr4/B11-209 (8.95 t ha-1), G193/Mr4 (8.53 t ha-1) and B11-136/Mr14 (8.30 t ha-1). Despite these encouraging results, the authors note that these hybrids need to be tested further for wider adaptation before they are released commercially.

Publisher: In 'Maize for Asia: emerging trends and technologies. Proceeding of the 10th Asian Regional Maize Workshop, Makassar, Indonesia, 20-23 October 2008', ed. by P.H. Zaidi, M. Azrai and K.V. Pixley. CIMMYT