This article examines feeding management practices of smallholder producers at two sites in East Java—lowland and upland—in order to assess the potential for improving beef cattle production based on the availability of local feed resources. The research uses data gathered from a survey of 184 farmers in 2010, focusing on household and farm characteristics, cattle numbers, cropping patterns, and feeding practices, especially with regard to rice straw. The findings show that lowland and upland cattle production systems varied, reflecting the different agro-ecological and socio-economic characteristics of the two study sites. The high importance of rice straw as a source of feed was evident in both sites. Most of this feed was obtained from other farms, either directly or by purchase. Greater scarcity of this resource in the upland site means that farmers travelled longer distances and incurred a higher total cost to obtain their supply. Rice straw was dried for 3-4 days and stored in the lofts of cattle sheds. Planted grasses and legumes were also fed to cattle, but there appears to be potential to increase their production and utilization, especially shrub legumes.
This paper presents key findings from a research, development and extension program conducted between 2001 and 2009 in six villages in South Sulawesi and Central Lombok to develop and test a participatory, farming systems approach for evaluating and increasing the adoption of strategies for improving Bali cattle production in the smallholder farming systems of Eastern Indonesia. A whole farm model, called Integrated Analysis Tool, was developed to capture the particular features of Eastern Indonesian smallholder farming systems, including Bali Cattle feed responses, local feed types and management practices. Smallholders actively participated in every step of the process from benchmarking, identification of cattle production constraints and opportunities, the selection and field testing of best-bet strategies and the extension of technologies to other households. This research approach resulted in sustained adoption of a package of best-bet technologies by the 30 participating smallholder households with an intention to continue these practices into the future. It further resulted in positive production, social and economic impacts, as well as significant adoption/adaption of the livestock improvement technologies by other households exposed to the practices.
This report identifies intervention opportunities to strengthen the performance of the vegetable sub-sector in Eastern Indonesia. The research is based on field observations, interviews with value chain participants and consultation with other stakeholders in West Java, East Java, Central Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and North Sumatra. The report contains a summary of the vegetable sub-sector and an outline of private and public sector roles. Critical problems and constraints limiting the vegetable sub-sectors performance were summarised as: disorganised seed industry; excessive pesticide residues increasing production costs and threatening markets; neglect of wet markets including transport and handling, health and sanitation, food safety concerns and market waste; limited relationships between farmers and supermarket wholesalers; lack of awareness and access to market intelligence; reduction in suitable vegetable producing land; lack of marketing technology e.g. packaging; and globalisation resulting in reduced production of certain vegetables. The report suggests various interventions, among them seed industry development, improved farmer buyer contracts, a pesticide focused extension program, marketplace design, market development, packaging and waste management options. It also includes location specific considerations where necessary.
While the demand for specialty coffee in Indonesia is high, the industry is constrained by its inability to increase production. This study assesses the trade and marketing practices of Indonesian specialty coffee through interviews with different value chain actors— exporters, farmer associations and cooperatives, processors, traders and government representatives—in the provinces of South Sulawesi, North Sumatra, Aceh and Bali. The research identifies a number of key constraints to increasing productivity including lack of coffee traceability, limited on-farm drying and pulping facilities, lack of control of coffee berry borer, and an inefficient coffee representative body. The author makes four key recommendations, namely a proposed intervention on Flores to improve agronomic practices and develop organic coffee; restoring Arabica coffee to tsunami abandoned acreage (>20 per cent) and expanding farmers drying capacity and pulping ability; the use of Broca traps to immediately improve production and quality of Robusta and low altitude Arabica coffees affected by coffee borer; and development of direct market linkages. The report notes that activities addressing some of these recommendations are already underway.
Aquaculture is an important contributor to the Indonesian economy and has considerable potential for expansion. This publication presents the findings of a review and SWOT analysis of aquaculture development in Indonesia, and discusses the possible approaches to support its sustainable development. The authors suggest that a combination of strategies (intensification and production segmentation, areal expansion, and production diversification) is necessary to meet the Government's vision to become the world's leading aquaculture producer by 2015. A critical issue identified in the analysis is the need for improved coordination and linking of industry development efforts, such as coordination across government levels, consistent implementation of regulations, and linking of research, development, extension and training activities. The paper also highlights that 95 percent of aquaculture farms in Indonesia are smallholdings, which the authors argue could be negatively impacted by the promotion of large-scale aquaculture and changing international market requirements, unless policy development specifically addresses the issue.
Many Indonesian companies are not adequately prepared to compete in a global free trade market because of their low level of competitiveness. In this article, Ibrahim and Zailani examine the supply chain implementation in Indonesia's coffee industry and the specific issues that it faces in competing in a global market. Among them is the excess in supply and production in recent years—an effect of the global economic crisis—that has led to unemployment, retrenchment of workers and a reduction in production activities to save or reduce operational costs and to minimize loss in profits. A further challenge is the low quality of Indonesia's coffee, which results in relatively low prices on the international market. This is primarily caused by the poor and inefficient production process. The authors conclude that for Indonesia to increase efficiency and cost productivity in its coffee supply chains to face the challenges of globalization and the opening up of its own economy to global players, it needs to implement (and maintain) a well-structured global supply chain. This will require, first and foremost, the development of an integrated global supply chain infrastructure.
This report details a value chain analysis to identify opportunities to improve the competitiveness of the aquaculture sector. Methodology involved interviews with value chain members in Bali, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Aceh, Sumatra Utara, Sumatra Selatan, Java Barat and Jakarta as well as government officials and desk top research. The report details the marine, shrimp and freshwater aquaculture value chains in Indonesia incorporating market demand, value chain participants, input supply, production technology, trading, processing and consumers and the key constraints and potential solutions for each value chain. The authors identify three target subsectors for intervention based on comparative advantages and their potential to increase Indonesia's competitiveness. These are summarised as: development of grouper grow-out production system and markets; development of value adding processes, cold chain and supermarket linkages for freshwater aquaculture in Jakarta; and development of Indonesian shrimp branding globally based on best aquaculture practices to meet international consumer demands for food safety and traceability. Key steps required to implement the suggested interventions are also listed.