This article presents an overview of a management system that was established to monitor Bali cattle performance on the islands of Lombok and Sumbawa. Research was carried out over a three-year period in two villages on each island—one village adopting new management and the other retaining prevailing management. The primary components of new management were: controlled seasonal natural mating using a selected bull, calf weaning at 5-6 months of age and managing weaner diets. Data collected included diary, pedigree, growth, mating management and outcome, ownership, health, diet, commodity use and weather. All data was linked to a unique animal number and was replicated in village and office books. A technical officer on each island supported all aspects of the village beef business at both villages, and the officers were in turn supported by a scientist. Overall, the monitoring system was very effective in providing a full data set for village cattle production and demonstrated high reproductive capacity of Bali cattle. However, the success of the system was highly dependent on the dedication and skills of the technical officers.
This case study presents the research and outcomes of three ACIAR-funded projects to improve Bali cattle production for smallholders in eastern Indonesia. The projects—conducted between 2001 and 2008—developed and tested an approach that combined the principles of participatory, on-farm engagement with farmers, and farming systems analysis and modelling. Their main purpose was to encourage the uptake of technologies that improve the productivity and welfare of smallholder households. Trials of the different options were conducted over a two-year period, involving 40 selected households from four sites in eastern Indonesia. The case study demonstrates how the uptake of these technologies is starting to bring substantial benefits to the smallholders, their families and communities such as increased forage and livestock production, labour savings, and increased family income. The tools, knowledge and skills developed through this work are now being utilized for other projects aiming to generate wide-scale adoption of new farming practices, increased beef production and improved farmer welfare in eastern Indonesia.
The low weight of Bali cattle for sale was a major issue related to smallholder farmer poverty and an impediment to the development of a cattle industry in eastern Indonesia. An ACIAR-funded research team established that the low weight was due to poor management, particularly nutrition, which led to low reproductive efficiency, and poor survival and growth of the calf. The research team worked with villagers to introduce a simple management system aimed at increasing pregnancy rates in lactating cows, reducing calf mortality, reducing the bull cost per calf, and increasing average post-weaning growth rates and survival. These strategies aimed to minimise costs, increase turn-off rates, reduce average turn-off age and increase net financial returns. This case study outlines the approach taken to develop an integrated management system for Bali cattle, with emphasis on both successes and failures.
This article explores the degree to which diversification to non-farm activities, productivity improvements for identical crops (in this case coffee) and crop switching (from coffee to cocoa) are driving income dynamics in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using a household panel data set for Central Sulawesi collected in 2001, 2004 and 2006, the authors find that the growth in and level of rural incomes in the post-crisis period can be explained by a common set of factors, including an increase in non-agricultural household incomes, a shift in cropping patterns and more favourable commodity prices for cocoa. While many households derived part of their incomes from non-agricultural activities, significant entrance barriers for poorer households to become engaged in profitable non-agricultural activities remain. Moreover, incomes from agriculture still constitute the financial backbone of rural households. Income growth among poor households can be primarily attributed to increases in agricultural self-employed income while richer households also benefited from strong increases in non-agricultural incomes. The basic income relationships obtained from this study can be found all over rural Indonesia.
This paper reviews cassava research in Indonesia prior to 2000 and presents the key achievements in farmer adoption of new technologies to increase cassava yields and income. The improved practices the authors examine include land preparation, erosion control, planting material, plant growth management through plant population and spacing, planting time, weed control, cropping systems and fertilization. The research highlights that cassava planting time is affected by cropping system, soil type and water availability. Planting cassava on medium to light textured soils can be done from the beginning to the end of the rainy season without significant effects on root yield when plants are harvested at 8-12 months, since water availability of 35-60 mm/10 days could be maintained during the first five months. It outlines the optimum plant population for monoculture cassava using non-, late- or branching varieties on poor and better soils: 12,000-14,000, 10,000 and 10,000 plants/ha, respectively. Intercropping systems of cassava with upland rice and other secondary food crops increased Land Equivalent Ration to 1.59, increased net income by 15 per cent, reduced soil erosion by 20 per cent and resulted in a B/C ratio of about 2.80.
Forty-six coffee companies in Indonesia have currently been certified, producing a total of 47,000 tons of certified coffee per year. This paper examines the challenges of sustainable farming system certification for coffee in Indonesia. Coffee companies were found to engage in coffee certification for a number of reasons, namely as a marketing tool, to reduce risk when prices fluctuate, to make it easier to gather coffee beans from farmers, and to receive a price premium. Among the main challenges highlighted for certification is that smallholders do not fully understand the intention and objective of certification programs, which leads to confusion in responding to complex certification criteria and indicators. The research highlights the differences in implementation of certification programs for smallholders and private and government estates. Certification for smallholders is usually conducted by traders and exporters, while for coffee estates it is conducted by plantation owners. Coffee farmers have no capability to hold certification due to constraints in cost, knowledge, networking and marketing. The authors point to the need for efficient sustainable coffee certification in Indonesia—as well as other ASEAN countries—that is cost effective and globally acceptable.
In this article, Mahendri et al. describe and analyse the movement of beef cattle from small-scale producers to consumers in East Java, the province with the highest share of cattle population in Indonesia and a large proportion of beef consumers. Research was carried out in five districts in 2010-11, involving small-scale producers, cattle growers, traders, butchers, and representatives from traditional district markets, slaughterhouses and supermarkets. The findings show that the beef marketing chain from small-scale producers to consumers in East Java is reasonably competitive and efficient, with many actors at each stage. The authors conclude that the facilitating role of Government in support of infrastructure (roads, market facilities and slaughterhouses) is important, in addition to regulation of meat quality, however further intervention in the market is probably not warranted. Commercial feedlots, inter-provincial trade and port were not included in this research. The authors acknowledge that an understanding of the marketing system and its constraints will be an important aspect of ongoing research into improving the productivity and livelihoods of small-scale producers.
This study provides a comprehensive overview of the production practices, consumption habits, consumer preferences and distribution of chilli in Indonesia. Data was collected via secondary sources as well as interviews with key food chain stakeholders, including 306 chilli and non-chilli farmers from West Java, Central Java and East Java, as well as 16 market agents, 6 chili processors, and 289 chilli and non-chilli farmer housewives and 62 urban housewives. Key constraints identified by farmers were insect and pest losses (up to 63 per cent), difficulties in marketing and low yield potential. Analytical assessment of the different food chain levels highlighted several opportunities for improving chilli production and benefits for small farmers. Chilli production and income could be improved through the development of improved varieties for pest resistance, yield potential and incorporation of consumers' preferred traits (freshness, more seeds, attractive colour, pungency). Judicious use of inputs (fertilisers and pesticides) would contribute significantly to reduced production costs. Furthermore, price and negotiating power could be improved through collaborative marketing, farm level chilli processing and development of direct market links and information networks.
The authors, researchers at the University of Mataram, examine the current conditions of livestock production systems in Lombok and Sumbawa to aid understanding of farmers' ability to adapt to changes in land use, socio-economic and agro-climatic conditions. They look specifically at the distribution and richness of species in different ecological sub-regions, as well as dynamics, drivers of change and potential future impacts. The research determines that the different biophysical, demographic and socio-economic conditions of Lombok and Sumbawa result in distinct livestock production systems. Nevertheless, land available for livestock production is rapidly declining in both locations and many farmers are yet to evolve from free grazing to the productive cut and carry system. If the capacity of farmers to respond to changes in the ecosystem and socio-economic conditions do not improve, livestock populations may decline in the near future. The researchers suggest that adaptation strategies should therefore be developed by drawing on existing best practices and empirical experience from similar conditions, and utilizing local knowledge.