This report reviews previous agroforestry, forage and livestock projects in eastern Indonesia to assess the potential for integrated timber-forage-livestock agroforestry systems to improve the incomes of smallholder farmers in West Timor. It identifies strategies for developing more acceptable systems, proposes methods for their implementation and provides an assessment and analysis of the constraints to adoption of research results. The scoping study included field investigation and a social survey in West Timor in 2007. Findings reveal that the major barriers constraining the adoption of agroforestry programs are physical, social, institutional and economic in nature, including water availability, limited understanding of farmer's decision making processes, labour shortages, low household capital, and regulatory frameworks and policies inhibiting beneficial programs. Furthermore, farmers were found to be reluctant to make long-term investments. The study proposes a timber, forage, livestock agroforestry approach as a strategy for enhancing the uptake of new technology—a flexible approach that allows for the cyclical nature of adoption. Success will depend on the extent to which biophysical and socio-cultural aspects are integrated into the approach.
In recent years, maize cropping in Indonesia has been increasing rapidly at 20-30 per cent per annum, particularly in the lowlands. Yet more areas have the potential for development of maize farming. This paper presents the results of integrated maize management trials conducted in lowland areas of Sidrap regency in South Sulawesi during the dry seasons of 2006 and 2007. Data was gathered through Rural Participatory Appraisals, respondent interviews and secondary data collection. The results show that planting open-pollinated varieties of maize (Lamuru and Srikandi Kuning-1) produced an average of 4-4.5 t/ha-1 with a benefit of Rp. 4.6 million ha-1 and a return:cost ratio of 2.31. This shows the marked promise of developing maize in the rainfed lowlands. The authors propose that five component technologies need to be implemented by farmers for integrated management of maize production, namely high-yielding open-pollinated varieties, quality seed, appropriate plant spacing, nitrogen fertilization and water channel construction. The authors conclude that more emphasis should be placed on planting maize in Indonesia's rainfed lowlands, especially since technology is available to enhance productivity and cost efficiency.
This report compares and contrasts the potential for use of a public private partnership approach to solve the problems of low productivity and inadequate smallholder income in the beef cattle and cocoa industries in eastern Indonesia. Overall, the study found that the potential for improvement of productivity in the beef industry—in order to reduce import dependence and meet market demand—appears much lower than the potential for success in improving profitability and sustainability in the cocoa industry by improving yields and quality. Cocoa provides a good model for reform and productivity improvement in high value cropping by smallholders in partnership with Government and the private sector in Indonesia. However, the solutions to the multiple problems of production, product quality, trade and export, research and extension require an approach involving the whole supply chain. The report outlines a management structure for public private partnership involving an industry wide Commission and Secretariat composed of all stakeholders.
The growth of international specialty coffee markets has increased the demand for high-quality coffee production at origin, offering opportunities for smallholders to engage in product upgrading and potentially increase the farm-gate price of their coffee. This paper examines smallholder farmer engagement in specialty coffee production across the islands of Sulawesi and Flores. The study integrates global value chain analysis with a livelihoods approach to address the critical linkages between quality upgrading in the value chain and farm livelihood strategies, asking the question whether or not quality upgrading directly contributes to improved livelihood outcomes without further institutional support. A key finding from this research is that distinct livelihood strategies affect both the willingness of farmers to participate in value chain upgrading as well as their potential to gain tangible benefits from enhanced value chain integration. The authors suggest that government interventions should no longer focus on areas of market failure or the provision of public goods, but instead areas of rural development not being provided through value chains.
This case study provides an overview of an ACIAR-funded project to minimise aflatoxin contamination in Indonesian and Australian peanuts through research, development and extension of on-farm and postharvest management practices. It details the motivation behind the project, which ran for five years from 2001 to 2006, and the main outputs and impacts it has or is expected to make. One of the important impacts of the project, noted in the case study, is the quantification of actual—and potential for—aflatoxin contamination throughout the peanut food chain, which has established a clear link between agriculture and human health. This presents compelling justification for further action from national and provincial governments to develop and implement appropriate policy measures to reduce its impact throughout the Indonesian community. At the same time, dissemination of information on aflatoxin incidence and its management, generated by the project, has led to significant adoption by research and extension agencies, as well as to the creation of a large extension network program. The lessons learned from this project are useful for future research on peanuts in Indonesia.
This study identifies potential business partners and investment opportunities for the IFC to consider in future development of the horticulture sector. The report details consumer, distribution and retails trends, horticultural production, exports and imports, processed horticultural products and investment trends and constraints. The report also profiles East Java, South Sulawesi, North Sumatra, Lampung and Bali encompassing regional investment, and constraints and opportunities for future development. Methodology involved a literature review, collation and analysis of secondary information from a range of horticulture networks, and 20 interviews with key supply chain stakeholders such as fresh produce suppliers, importers, retailers, processors, government and foreign embassies. Regional analysis and profiling involved 31 regional visits and interviews. The author identifies opportunities for development of Indonesian horticulture in four key areas: value added produce for high value markets; plantation farming; farmer trader retailer partnerships with associated investment in facilities and support in the areas of technical information, finance access and market intelligence; linking investors to take advantage of Indonesia's investment appeal. The report also outlines Government regulations impacting on export, import and investment.
This paper examines factors affecting the reproduction level of Kacang and Peranakan Etawah goats under the village production system. The study was conducted in two regencies in Central Java as part of a doe productivity evaluation program under the village production system. Reproduction data of 173 Peranakan Etawah and 189 Kacang does were collected through on-farm research over 20 months. The reproduction traits examined were parity, type of birth and litter weight at weaning. The findings revealed that the average reproduction rate of Kacang and Peranakan Etawah does was 2.95 and 1.76 kid/doe/year, respectively, which was significantly affected by parity, type of birth and litter weight at weaning. The reproduction rate of both breeds of doe tended to increase with the advance in parity up to the fourth parity and slightly decreased thereafter. The reproduction rate increased progressively with the advance in birth type. The findings also showed that at each 1 gram increase in litter weight at weaning there was an increase of 0.17 and 0.08 reproduction rate of Kacang and Peranakan Etawah does, respectively.
This report outlines the South East Sulawesi seafood supply chain including live fish and lobster, processed abalone and sea cucumber and seaweed. The report is based on desk research as well as meetings with seafood market chain operators, traders and buyers which are reported as case studies. The author outlines the role of Makassar in South Sulawesi as the trading centre for seafood products. The seaweed case study highlights limitations and opportunities in the seaweed market chain including price discounts for high moisture content due to inadequate drying, quality improvement with improved cultivation techniques and location selection and lack of direct seaweed exports from Kendari port due to insufficient supply, lack of established relationships with importers, unsuitable infrastructure and control of exports by Makassar traders. The report concludes with an overview of seafood chain issues and opportunities, including strong export opportunities and development of regional branding; lack of market focus by fishermen; control of market power by traders; limited infrastructure at Kendari port; and a need for allied industry involvement in development programs.