Dokumen ini adalah referensi yang komprehensif dari dokumen sumber dari penelitian sebelumnya dan kegiatan pengembangan di rantai nilai pertanian di bagian Timur Indonesia. Kepustakaan ini mencakup sepuluh komoditas yang dipelajari secara detail di bawah EI-ADO (jagung, daging sapi, kacang, kedelai, kacang hijau, mangga, bawang merah, cabai, tomat dan kentang), begitu juga singkong, coklat, kopi, kacang mete, kambing, babi dan rumput laut. Tema lintas sektoral dari sistem pertanian terintegrasi, pertanian kontrak dan pasar rantai nilai juga tercakup di dalam kepustakaan ini. Kepustakaan berfokus pada referensi yang diterbitkan sejak tahun 2000. Referensi sebagian besar berbahasa Inggris dengan beberapa referensi utama berbahasa Indonesia.

Impact of export tax policy on cocoa farmers and supply chain

Author: Rifin, A. Publication Date: 2012

An export tax was introduced on Indonesian cocoa beans in 2010 to guarantee domestic supply for processing. This reduced cocoa bean exports by 51.4 per cent and increased processed cocoa exports by between 11.3 and 224 per cent. To assess the impact of this export tax on cocoa farmers and the supply chain, surveys were conducted with 60 farmers in South Sulawesi and various supply chain participants. A qualitative approach was used to analyse the cocoa supply chain from farmers to exporters or processors, and quantitative analysis for analysing the marketing system, efficiency analysis and price linkage. Results indicate that farmers' price is determined by the international price due to their higher bargaining power. It is the exporter that has a reduced margin or price differential following increased processing capacity and competition between exporters and processors for available beans. The study identified three marketing channels: farmers selling wet cocoa beans for cocoa processing; farmer's groups fermenting cocoa beans and then selling as providing the highest return to farmers; and farmer's selling dried beans to local traders.

Publisher: SEADI Discussion Paper Series. USAID

Impacts of liberalization on the competitiveness and efficiency of the cashew system in Nusa Tenggara Barat province, Indonesia.

Author: Budastra K. and Dipokusumo B. Publication Date: 2004

Cashew is an increasingly important export commodity for Indonesia. In this article, the authors use data obtained from primary and secondary sources to examine the competitiveness and efficiency of monoculture and intercropping systems of cashew production in West Nusa Tenggara province, and the likely impacts of selected scenarios of anticipated policy changes on the competitiveness of these two systems. This research uses the Policy Analysis Matrix as a data analysis tool. The research shows that both cashew systems are strongly competitive and efficient in resource use due to generation of high positive private and social profits. On this basis, the authors propose that policy makers consider the expansion of cashew plantations as one of the best options to improve smallholders' incomes, particularly smallholders living in dry land areas. They further suggest that emphasis should be placed on expanding the intercropping cashew system, given that intercropping cashews with corn leads to higher productivity of cashews and significantly higher private and social profits for cashew farmers.

Publisher: Faculty of Agriculture, Mataram University: Indonesia.

Implementation of a breeding program for Bali cattle. Technical issues at national and regional levels.

Author: Talib C., Siregar A.R., Budiarti-Turner S. and Diwyanto K. Publication Date: 2003
(No annotation available)
Journal: In 'Strategies to improve Bali cattle in Eastern Indonesia', ed. by K. Entwistle and D.R. Lindsay. ACIAR Proceedings No. 110.
Publisher: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research: Canberra.

Implementation of farmer participatory research (FPR) in the transfer of cassava technologies in Indonesia

Author: Utomo W.H., Suyamto, and Sinaga A Publication Date: 2001

This paper presents the experiences of using farmer participatory research to develop and transfer cassava production technologies to maintain soil productivity, reduce erosion and increase farmers' incomes. The research was conducted over a five year period in two districts of East Java: Blitar and Malang. A Rapid Rural Appraisal was initially used, in which farmers identified problems and proposed potential solutions. The results demonstrate that farmers understood low crop productivity was partly due to improper land management and they knew how to implement soil conservation practices. However, they did not adopt the technology properly because it was too costly and complicated. When farmers became aware that this was not the case, they developed demonstration plots to test some of the technologies, including erosion control practices, fertilizer application and the introduction of new cassava varieties. During the course of the project, the number of farmers adopting the soil conservation practices in their own fields significantly increased. The study found that the farmer participatory research approach increased the self-confidence of farmers, motivated them to actively obtain new knowledge about technologies and increased their willingness and ability to try them.

Publisher: In 'Cassava's potential in Asia in the 21st century: present situation and future research and development needs.' Proceedings of Sixth Regional Workshop, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 21-25 February 2000', ed. by R.H. Howeler and S.L. Tan. Pp. 424-435

Implementing pedigree systems.

Author: Graser, H. Publication Date: 2003
(No annotation available)
Journal: In 'Strategies to improve Bali cattle in Eastern Indonesia', ed. by K. Entwistle and D.R. Lindsay. ACIAR Proceedings No. 110.
Publisher: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research: Canberra

Improving Indonesia's beef industry.

Author: Hadi P.U., Ilham N., Thahar A., Winarso B., Vincent D. and Quirke D. Publication Date: 2002
(No annotation available)
Publisher: ACIAR Monograph No. 95. Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research: Canberra.

Improving smallholder crop-livestock systems in eastern Indonesia. ACIAR-LPS/2004/005.

Author: Lisson S., MacLeod N., McDonald C., Corfield J., Wirajaswadi L., Rahman R., et al. Publication Date: 2008

This report presents findings from a project aiming to help smallholder farmers improve cattle production in eastern Indonesia by introducing forages into their cropping systems. It identified several factors constraining livestock production in smallholder farming systems, and found that most technologies needed to address the constraints are already available in Indonesia or elsewhere, but have not yet been adopted by local farmers. The report describes the merits of combining the principles and tools of farming systems analysis and farmer participation, where an extensive benchmarking process to identify constraints to livestock production and potential strategies to address them are shared with farmers to develop a shortlist of feasible strategies for on-farm trialling. Based on feedback from farmers and results from monitoring on-farm trials the approach was deemed successful. The pathways to adoption of livestock improvement strategies varied by region and technology. The initial focus was to address forage supply and quality constraints through modest plantings of selected forages. The confidence and trust arising from successful adoption of this comparatively simple technology was used as an entry point for more complex animal management strategies requiring long-term planning and investment.

Publisher: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research

Improving the sustainability and competitiveness of agricultural export commodities in Indonesia

Author: Arifin B. Publication Date: 2012

This study identifies sustainability and competitiveness issues in the value chains of the following key Indonesian export commodities; cocoa, coffee, mango, cashew, tea and rubber. Methodology included desk top analysis and interviews with development and research stakeholders. Each commodity is described in a separate section and includes discussion of the issues relating to sustainability and competitiveness and opportunities to address these. The report highlights specific issues unique to each commodity and generic issues such as low smallholder productivity and access to improved farming practices and technology through to inefficient value chains and challenges in complying with national sustainability policy and international corporate environmental governance. The authors summarise the current policy and operating environment and provide policy recommendations to improve sustainability and competitiveness of these value chains into the future. These include: integrated horticulture development in upland areas for mango; farm production and added value creation for cashew; combining clonal based development and forest protection in rubber; revitalisation of the tea production and marketing system; expanding cocoa somatic embryogenesis technology seedling and sustainability based certification; and improving the mechanism of coffee certification schemes.

Publisher: World Bank

Increased incomes for Indonesian cocoa farmers in sustainable markets: NGO-private sector cooperation on Sulawesi Island. Full case study

Author: VECO Publication Date: 2011

This report describes a collaboration between the NGO VECO, the leading global cocoa supplier Armajaro, and West Sulawesi farmers to develop direct market linkages and build on previous development work. The report briefly outlines the cocoa industry and the local cocoa chain and identifies key partners, their roles and activities. Testimonials from stakeholders provide comment on the process, benefits and challenges of the program. Benefits to farmers include improved production (up to 750kg/ha compared with an average of 500kg/ha, but potential for significant growth up to 2000kg/ha), better prices and income, terms and access to market and quality information. Sixty-seven farmer groups have qualified for UTZ certification providing another market opportunity. The report illustrates that collaborative programs can facilitate opportunities for traceability, production and quality improvements and that collective selling is a viable income source for organised farmer groups with improved productivity and quality. The report highlights the need for farmer organisations to become stronger and more organised at national and local levels to improve their bargaining capacity.

Publisher: Vredeseilanden Country Offices Indonesia

Increasing the success rate and adoption of artificial insemination for genetic improvement of Bali cattle.

Author: Toelihere M.R. Publication Date: 2003
(No annotation available)
Journal: In 'Strategies to improve Bali cattle in Eastern Indonesia', ed. by K. Entwistle and D.R. Lindsay. ACIAR Proceedings No. 110.
Publisher: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research: Canberra.

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